F Ivy Carroll

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A large body of evidence supports the hypothesis that mesolimbic dopamine (DA) mediates, in animal models, the reinforcing effects of central nervous system stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. The role DA plays in mediating amphetamine-type subjective effects of stimulants in humans remains to be established. Both amphetamine and cocaine increase(More)
Stress and depression have been linked to relapse of cocaine abuse. Antagonism of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) has been reported to attenuate some effects of stressors, and antagonism of the KOR has been reported to have antidepressant-like properties. Our objective was to determine whether the potent and selective KOR antagonist,(More)
Varenicline, a new nicotinic ligand based on the structure of cytisine, has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as a smoking cessation aid. Varenicline has been shown to be a partial agonist of alpha4beta2 receptors, and in equilibrium binding assays, it is highly selective for the alpha4beta2 receptor. In this study, we(More)
In vivo voltammetry was used to investigate the preferential increase of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens relative to the caudate-putamen after systemic cocaine administration. In the first part of this study, cocaine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was compared with two other blockers of dopamine uptake, nomifensine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and(More)
Opioid receptors mediate the actions of endogenous and exogenous opioids on many physiological processes, including the regulation of pain, respiratory drive, mood, and--in the case of κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR)--dysphoria and psychotomimesis. Here we report the crystal structure of the human κ-OR in complex with the selective antagonist JDTic, arranged in(More)
Buprenorphine is a mixed opioid receptor agonist-antagonist used clinically for maintenance therapy in opiate addicts and pain management. Dose-response curves for buprenorphine-induced antinociception display ceiling effects or are bell shaped, which have been attributed to the partial agonist activity of buprenorphine at opioid receptors. Recently,(More)
Dopaminergic mechanisms are thought to play a central role in the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The present study examined the reinforcing effects of 3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid phenyl ester (RTI-113), a long-acting, selective, high-affinity dopamine uptake inhibitor. Additionally, the effects of RTI-113 pretreatment on cocaine(More)
Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant that also has usefulness as a smoking-cessation aid. Because hydroxybupropion, a major metabolite of bupropion, is believed to contribute to its antidepressant activity, this metabolite may also contribute to the smoking-cessation properties of bupropion. This study investigated the effects of hydrobupropion(More)
Dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors may represent a promising class of drugs in the development of cocaine pharmacotherapies. In the present study, the effects of pretreatments with the selective DAT inhibitor 3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane-2beta-[3-(4'-methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl] hydrochloride (RTI-336) (0.3-1.7 mg/kg) were characterized in rhesus monkeys(More)