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Since the first solid organ transplant between the Herrick twins in 1954, transplantation immunology has sought to move away from harmful immunosuppressive regimens towards tolerogenic strategies that promote long-term graft survival. This has required a concerted multinational effort with scientists and clinicians working towards a common goal. Reports of(More)
Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) in solid organ transplantation is a principal cause of patient morbidity and late allograft loss. The pathogenesis of CAD is largely secondary to chronic damage by the adaptive immune system and long-term immunosuppression. Manipulating these factors may be possible with the use of regulatory T cells (Treg), which have(More)
BACKGROUND Composite tissue transplantation effectively reconstructs the most complex defects, but its use is limited because of harmful immunosuppression and the high susceptibility of skin to rejection. Development of tolerance is an ideal solution, and protocols using regulatory T cells (Tregs) to achieve this have been promising in experimental animal(More)
Manipulation of the immune system to prevent the development of a specific immune response is an ideal strategy to improve outcomes after transplantation. A number of experimental techniques exploiting central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms have demonstrated success, leading to the first early phase clinical trials for tolerance induction. The first(More)
Regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy for immune modulation is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of autoimmune disease and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after bone marrow transplantation. However, Treg are heterogeneous and express a variety of chemokine receptor molecules. The optimal subpopulation of Treg for therapeutic use(More)
The adoptive transfer of natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) is a new option to reshape undesired immune reactivity in autoimmunity and transplantation toward "tolerance." The first clinical trials using adoptive transfer of polyclonal nTreg demonstrated safety and hints of efficacy. However, the low frequencies of antigen-specific cells among the pool of(More)
We report our outcomes following combined intestinal and abdominal wall transplantation, focusing on the presentation and treatment of acute rejection of the abdominal wall vascularized composite allograft (VCA). Retrospective analysis of all patients with combined intestinal/VCA transplantation was undertaken. Graft abnormalities were documented(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation restores defects to a degree not possible by conventional techniques. However, it is limited by the need for long-term immunosuppression and high rates of acute rejection directed against skin. There is therefore a need for a therapy that may shift the risk-benefit ratio in favour of(More)
Transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage organ failure, but organ survival is limited by immune rejection and the side effects of immunosuppressive regimens. T cells are central to the process of transplant rejection through allorecognition of foreign antigens leading to their activation, and the orchestration of an effector response(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Solid organ transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage organ failure, but the long-term outcomes remain suboptimal. CD4 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are emerging as a potential therapy to facilitate long-term allograft survival. This review provides a general overview of the biology of CD4 Tregs and then goes on to discuss(More)