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Archaeological and soil-stratigraphic data define the origin, growth, and collapse of Subir, the third millennium rain-fed agriculture civilization of northern Mesopotamia on the Habur Plains of Syria. At 2200 B. C., a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use(More)
Land surface properties, such as vegetation cover and soil moisture, influence the partitioning of radiative energy between latent and sensible heat fluxes in daytime hours. During dry periods, soil-water deficit can limit evapotranspiration, leading to warmer and drier conditions in the lower atmosphere. Soil moisture can influence the development of(More)
  • J.-L Redelsperger, F Guichard, C Hoff, M Kav, Asima, Lang T Montmerle +4 others
  • 1999
SUMMARY Results from eight cloud-resolving models are compared for the first time for the case of an oceanic tropical squall line observed during the Tropical Ocean/Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. There is broad agreement between all the models in describing the overall stl.lIcture and propagation of the squall line and some(More)
We review the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) model inter-1. Background Global coupled climate models are not yet mature enough to simulate the West-African climate accurately (IPCC 2007, AR4). For example, a number of models do not locate the rainfall maxima over West Africa correctly during the monsoon season (Cook and Vizy, 2006). It is(More)
The AMMA-CATCH Gourma observatory site in Mali: Relating climatic var‐ iations to changes in vegetation, surface hydrology, fluxes and natural resources Gourma observatory site in Mali: Relating climatic variations to changes in vegetation, surface hydrology, fluxes and natural resources, This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted(More)
African dust emission and transport exhibits variability on diurnal to decadal timescales and is known to influence processes such as Amazon productivity, Atlantic climate modes, regional atmospheric composition and radiative balance and precipitation in the Sahel. To elucidate the role of African dust in the climate system, it is necessary to understand(More)
A set of night time tethered balloon and kite measurements from the central Sahel (15.2 • N, 1.3 • W) in August 2005 were acquired and analyzed. A composite of all nights' data was produced using boundary layer height to normalize measured altitudes. The observations showed some typical characteristics of nocturnal boundary layer development, notably a(More)
The Sahelian zone is characterized by low and highly variable rainfall, which strongly affects the hydrology and the climate of the region and creates severe constraints for agriculture and water management. This study provides the first characterization of the rainfall regime in a poorly described region of Central Sahel, Gourma region (14.5° to 17.5° N(More)