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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized organ responsible for thermogenesis, a process required for maintaining body temperature. BAT is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which activates lipolysis and mitochondrial uncoupling in brown adipocytes. For many years, BAT was considered to be important only in small mammals and newborn(More)
PURPOSE Disparity sensitivity may be explained by interocular positional differences of the receptive fields (RF) of visual cortical cells or by interocular shifts of the On and Off RF subregions. Since this latter model assumes shifts are orthogonal to the orientation of the RF, cells with disparity sensitivity should be oriented. The objective of the(More)
Hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key mechanism leading to obesity. Here, we demonstrate that ceramides induce lipotoxicity and hypothalamic ER stress, leading to sympathetic inhibition, reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and weight gain. Genetic overexpression of the chaperone GRP78/BiP (glucose-regulated protein 78(More)
Stereoscopic vision is based on small differences in both retinal images known as retinal disparities. We investigated the cortical responses to retinal disparities in a patient suffering from occipital epilepsy by recording evoked potentials to random dot stereograms (RDS) from subdural electrodes placed in the parieto-occipito-temporal junction, medial(More)
Polyphosphate glucokinase and ATP glucokinase were detected in cell-free extracts of Myxococcus coralloides strain D, but pyrophosphate glucokinase was not detected. Both glucokinase activities were separated by chromatography. The approximate molecular weight is 61 000 for polyphosphate glucokinase and 47 000 for ATP glucokinase. Substrate specificity and(More)
OBJECTIVE To report four cases of orbital metastases and review the literature related to this condition. METHODS We reviewed the clinical records of the four patients and the appropriate world literature. RESULTS Two women 51 and 82 years old presented with orbital metastases from a primary breast tumour and a third woman (45 years old) had orbital(More)
Traditional authentication (identity verification) systems, used to gain access to a private area in a building or to data stored in a computer, are based on something the user has (an authentication card, a magnetic key) or something the user knows (a password, an identification code). However, emerging technologies allow for more reliable and comfortable(More)
Because retinal ischemia is a common cause of vision loss, we sought to determine the effects of ischemia on neuroretinal function and survival in murine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and to define the role of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) in this model. OIR is a reproducible model of ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization; it is used commonly to(More)
PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to study the time-course development of cold cataract in mice under general anesthesia. METHODS We anesthetized five groups of 10 mice (12 weeks old) with 400 mg/Kg intraperitoneal injections of chloral hydrate and exposed them to 0, 7, 15, 23, and 37°C for 1 hr. Cataract development was assessed and graded as no(More)