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OBJECTIVE The authors discuss the relationship of impulsivity to psychiatric disorders and present selected hypotheses regarding the reasons for these relationships. METHOD Previous research has shown significantly higher levels of impulsivity among patients with conduct disorder, personality disorders, substance use disorders, and bipolar disorder,(More)
BACKGROUND State-dependent changes in impulsivity may be related to norepinephrine. To examine possible relationships between norepinephrine and acute changes in impulsivity, we measured effects of yohimbine, which increases norepinephrine release by blocking alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors, on laboratory-measured impulsivity in healthy subjects without(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or multiple(More)
To characterize how severe negative affect in women is reflected in objective measures of aggression and impulsivity, the aggressive and impulsive behavior of 14 hospitalized women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was compared with that of 17 controls. In an impulsivity task, subjects experienced two sets of 50 trials during which they could(More)
Impulsivity appears to play an important role in suicidal behaviors and drug abuse, which are two psychiatric problems that may interact with one another. Interpretation of the literature on impulsivity in these behaviors may be complicated by the variety of measurement techniques for the assessment of impulsivity. There are three general types of(More)
Rapid-response impulsivity, characterized by inability to withhold response to a stimulus until it is adequately appraised, is associated with risky behavior and may be increased in a state-dependent manner by norepinephrine. We assessed effects of yohimbine, which increases norepinephrine release by blocking alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors, on plasma(More)
Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has been reported in cocaine dependent subjects compared to non-drug using controls. There are several pathological mechanisms that could be responsible for these findings, since FA can be reduced through damage to axonal tracts and by neuronal loss. One way of obtaining more information(More)
Cocaine dependence remains a challenging public health problem with relapse cited as a major determinant in its chronicity and severity. Environmental contexts and stimuli become reliably associated with its use leading to durable conditioned responses ('cue reactivity') that can predict relapse as well as treatment success. Individual variation in the(More)
Recent studies demonstrated that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can provide information regarding white matter integrity of the corpus callosum (CC). In this study, DTI parameters were compared between cocaine dependent subjects (CDs) and non-drug using controls (NCs) in midsagittal CC. DTI images were acquired from 19 CDs and 18 age-matched NCs. The(More)
BACKGROUND Impulsivity is prominent in psychiatric disorders. Two dominant models of impulsivity are the reward-discounting model, where impulsivity is defined as inability to wait for a larger reward, and the rapid-response model, where impulsivity is defined as responding without adequate assessment of context. We have compared the role of these models of(More)