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OBJECTIVE The authors discuss the relationship of impulsivity to psychiatric disorders and present selected hypotheses regarding the reasons for these relationships. METHOD Previous research has shown significantly higher levels of impulsivity among patients with conduct disorder, personality disorders, substance use disorders, and bipolar disorder,(More)
To characterize how severe negative affect in women is reflected in objective measures of aggression and impulsivity, the aggressive and impulsive behavior of 14 hospitalized women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was compared with that of 17 controls. In an impulsivity task, subjects experienced two sets of 50 trials during which they could(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or multiple(More)
Concurrent abuse of cocaine and heroin is a common problem. Methadone is effective for opioid dependence. The question arises as to whether combining agonist-like or antagonist-like medication for cocaine with methadone for opioid dependence might be efficacious. Two parallel studies were conducted. One examined sustained release d-amphetamine and the other(More)
BACKGROUND State-dependent changes in impulsivity may be related to norepinephrine. To examine possible relationships between norepinephrine and acute changes in impulsivity, we measured effects of yohimbine, which increases norepinephrine release by blocking alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors, on laboratory-measured impulsivity in healthy subjects without(More)
Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has been reported in cocaine dependent subjects compared to non-drug using controls. There are several pathological mechanisms that could be responsible for these findings, since FA can be reduced through damage to axonal tracts and by neuronal loss. One way of obtaining more information(More)
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) may provide information regarding effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use on brain structure. Twelve MDMA users and 20 healthy controls underwent whole brain DTI data acquisition. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (D(av)), and longitudinal (lambda(1)) and transverse (lambda(T)) diffusivities were(More)
Brain imaging studies find evidence of prefrontal cortical dysfunction in cocaine-dependent subjects. Similarly, cocaine-dependent subjects have problems with behaviors related to executive function and impulsivity. Since prefrontal cortical axonal tracts cross between hemispheres in the corpus callosum, it is possible that white matter integrity in the(More)
A properly implemented agonist treatment regimen should improve retention and reduce illicit drug use. Cocaine-dependent subjects (N = 128) were enrolled in a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In the multistage dosing design, subjects initially received placebo (PBO) or 15 to 30 mg of dextroamphetamine sulfate, sustained-release(More)
BACKGROUND Behavioral impulsivity paradigms vary widely and studies using these measures have typically relied on a single measure used in isolation. As a result, comparisons between measures are difficult, with little consensus regarding which method may be most sensitive to individual impulsivity differences of different populations. METHOD A single(More)