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We present a computationally efficient and accurate adjoint method for calculating coupled sensitivities of complex frequency-domain excitation and emission fluence to any underlying optical parameters in highly scattering media. The method is shown to be general and accurate. Novel vectorized implementations for finite element global matrix assembly and(More)
Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Lithotripsy is the leading technique used in urology for the non-invasive treatment of kidney and ureteric stones. The stone is comminuted by thousands of ultrasound shocks, into fragments small enough to be naturally passed. Since the technique was introduced in the 1980 different generations of lithotripters have been developed.(More)
Many approaches to fluorescence tomography utilize some form of regularized nonlinear least-squares algorithm for data inversion, thus requiring repeated computation of the Jacobian sensitivity matrix relating changes in observable quantities, such as emission fluence, to changes in underlying optical parameters, such as fluorescence absorption. An exact(More)
Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the preferred modality for the treatment of renal and ureteric stone disease. Currently X-ray or ultrasound B-scan imaging are used to locate the stone and to check that it remains targeted at the focus of the lithotripter during treatment. Neither imaging modality is particularly effective in allowing the(More)
Workplace exposure to coherent and incoherent optical radiation from artificial sources is regulated under the Artificial Optical Radiation Directive (AORD) 2006/25/EC, now implemented in the UK under the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations (AOR) 2010. These regulations set out exposure limit values. Implementing the AOR (2010 Health(More)
F Fedele Medical Physics Department, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Trust, UK Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, UK AJ Coleman Medical Physics Department, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Trust, UK TG Leighton Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, UK PR White Institute of Sound and Vibration Research,(More)
Linear defect modes in one-dimensional photonic lattices are studied theoretically. For negative (repulsive) defects, various localized defect modes are found. The strongest confinement of the defect modes appears when the lattice intensity at the defect site is nonzero rather than zero. When launched at small angles into such a defect site of the lattice,(More)
Geometric discretizations that preserve certain Hamiltonian structures at the discrete level has been proven to enhance the accuracy of numerical schemes. In particular, numerous symplectic and multi-symplectic schemes have been proposed to solve numerically the celebrated Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. In this work, we show that geometrical schemes are(More)
Cardiotocography (simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contractions) is one of the most used diagnostic techniques to evaluate fetal well-being and to investigate the functional state of the fetal autonomic nervous system. Recently, great interest has been paid to the variability of the FHR, and its frequency analysis, as a base for(More)
In this article, localized defect modes in one-dimensional optically induced photonic lattices are studied comprehensively. First, the origin of these defect modes is investigated analytically in the weak-defect limit by perturbation methods. It is shown that in an attractive defect where the lattice light intensity at the defect site is higher than that of(More)