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This study attempted to define further the neural processing events underlying social anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and their response to pharmacotherapy. Social anxiety-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow were defined by [15O]H2 positron emission tomography (PET) in medication-free individuals with generalized SAD(More)
Recent work regarding the analysis of brain imaging data has focused on examining functional and effective connectivity of the brain. We develop a novel descriptive and inferential method to analyze the connectivity of the human brain using functional MRI (fMRI). We assess the relationship between pairs of distinct brain regions by comparing expected joint(More)
Complex functional brain network analyses have exploded over the last decade, gaining traction due to their profound clinical implications. The application of network science (an interdisciplinary offshoot of graph theory) has facilitated these analyses and enabled examining the brain as an integrated system that produces complex behaviors. While the field(More)
An active area of neuroimaging research involves examining functional relationships between spatially remote brain regions. When determining whether two brain regions exhibit significant correlation due to true functional connectivity, one must account for the background spatial correlation inherent in neuroimaging data. We define background correlation as(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data sets are large and characterized by complex dependence structures driven by highly sophisticated neurophysiology and aspects of the experimental designs. Typical analyses investigating task-related changes in measured brain activity use a two-stage procedure in which the first stage involves subject-specific(More)
There is strong interest in investigating both functional connectivity (FC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural connectivity (SC) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). There is also emerging evidence of correspondence between functional and structural pathways within many networks (Greicius, et al., 2009; Skudlarski et al.,(More)
Studying the interactions between different brain regions is essential to achieve a more complete understanding of brain function. In this article, we focus on identifying functional co-activation patterns and undirected functional networks in neuroimaging studies. We build a functional brain network, using a sparse covariance matrix, with elements(More)
Testosterone (T) therapy in older men with low serum T levels increases lean body mass and decreases fat mass. These changes might improve physical performance and strength; however, it has not been established whether T therapy improves functional outcome in older men. Moreover, concerns exist about the impact of T therapy on the prostate in older men. The(More)
Applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have provided novel insights into the neuropathophysiology of major psychiatric, neurological, and substance abuse disorders and their treatments. Modern activation studies often compare localized task-induced changes in brain activity between experimental groups. Complementary approaches consider(More)
BACKGROUND Isoflurane administration is known to increase extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration. Because the dopamine transporter (DAT) is a key regulator of DA, it is likely affected by isoflurane. This study investigates the hypothesis that isoflurane inhibits DA reuptake by causing DAT to be trafficked into the cell. METHODS Rhesus monkeys were(More)