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Neurotrophins use two types of receptors, the Trk tyrosine kinase receptors and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), to regulate the growth, development, survival and repair of the nervous system. These receptors can either collaborate with or inhibit each other's actions to mediate neurotrophin effects. The development and survival of neurons is thus(More)
We describe here the isolation of stem cells from juvenile and adult rodent skin. These cells derive from the dermis, and clones of individual cells can proliferate and differentiate in culture to produce neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells and adipocytes. Similar precursors that produce neuron-specific proteins upon differentiation can be isolated from(More)
p53 plays an essential pro-apoptotic role, a function thought to be shared with its family members p73 and p63. Here, we show that p73 is primarily present in developing neurons as a truncated isoform whose levels are dramatically decreased when sympathetic neurons apoptose after nerve growth factor (NGF) withdrawal. Increased expression of truncated p73(More)
In this report, we provide evidence that NGF and BDNF have functionally antagonistic actions on sympathetic neuron growth and target innervation, with NGF acting via TrkA to promote growth and BDNF via p75NTR to inhibit growth. Specifically, in cultured sympathetic neurons that themselves synthesize BDNF, exogenous BDNF inhibits and function-blocking BDNF(More)
In this report, we have examined the mechanisms whereby neurotrophins and neural activity coordinately regulate neuronal survival, focussing on sympathetic neurons, which require target-derived NGF and neural activity for survival during development. When sympathetic neurons were maintained in suboptimal concentrations of NGF, coincident depolarization with(More)
We have previously demonstrated that one member of the alpha-tubulin multigene family, termed T alpha 1 in rats, is regulated as a function of neuronal growth and regeneration. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for coupling gene expression to morphological differentiation, we have isolated the T alpha 1 gene, have fused 1.1 kb of the 5'(More)
The neurotrophins signal cell survival, differentiation, growth cessation, and apoptosis through two cell surface receptors, the Trks and p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor). Recent advances indicate that the particular events that are mediated by neurotrophins are dependent upon the cell type and the expression pattern of each neurotrophin receptor. For(More)
We have asked whether p75(NTR) may play a role in neuronal apoptosis by producing transgenic mice that express the p75(NTR) intracellular domain within peripheral and central neurons. These animals showed profound reductions in numbers of sympathetic and peripheral sensory neurons as well as cell loss in the neocortex, where there is normally little or no(More)
In this report, we examine how the Ras protein regulates neuronal survival, focusing on sympathetic neurons. Adenovirus-expressed constitutively activated Ras (RasV12) enhanced survival and the phosphorylation of Akt (protein kinase B) and MAP kinase (MAPK), two targets of Ras activity. Functional inhibition of endogenous Ras by adenovirus-expressed(More)
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) family is essential for cortical progenitors to exit the cell cycle and survive. In this report, we test the hypothesis that pRb collaborates with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to regulate cortical neurogenesis, taking advantage of the naturally occurring dominant-inhibitory HLH protein(More)