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Neurotrophins use two types of receptors, the Trk tyrosine kinase receptors and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), to regulate the growth, development, survival and repair of the nervous system. These receptors can either collaborate with or inhibit each other's actions to mediate neurotrophin effects. The development and survival of neurons is thus(More)
Converging lines of evidence implicate the beta-amyloid peptide (Ass) as causative in Alzheimer's disease. We describe a novel class of compounds that reduce A beta production by functionally inhibiting gamma-secretase, the activity responsible for the carboxy-terminal cleavage required for A beta production. These molecules are active in both 293 HEK cells(More)
We describe here the isolation of stem cells from juvenile and adult rodent skin. These cells derive from the dermis, and clones of individual cells can proliferate and differentiate in culture to produce neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells and adipocytes. Similar precursors that produce neuron-specific proteins upon differentiation can be isolated from(More)
To determine whether the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays a role in naturally occurring neuronal death, we examined neonatal sympathetic neurons that express both the TrkA tyrosine kinase receptor and p75NTR. When sympathetic neuron survival is maintained with low quantities of NGF or KCl, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),(More)
To determine how signals emanating from Trk transmit neurotrophin actions in primary neurons, we tested the ability of TrkB mutated at defined effector binding sites to promote sympathetic neuron survival or local axon growth. TrkB stimulated signaling proteins and induced survival and growth in a manner similar to TrkA. TrkB mutated at the Shc binding site(More)
In this report we examine the biological and molecular basis of the control of sympathetic neuron differentiation and survival by NGF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). NT-3 is as efficient as NGF in mediating neuritogenesis and expression of growth-associated genes in NGF-dependent sympathetic neurons, but it is 20-40-fold less efficient in supporting their(More)
A fundamental question in stem cell research is whether cultured multipotent adult stem cells represent endogenous multipotent precursor cells. Here we address this question, focusing on SKPs, a cultured adult stem cell from the dermis that generates both neural and mesodermal progeny. We show that SKPs derive from endogenous adult dermal precursors that(More)
We have previously isolated, expanded, and characterized a multipotent precursor cell from mammalian dermis (termed skin-derived precursors [SKPs]) that can differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progeny. In this study, we report the isolation, expansion, and characterization of a similar precursor cell from neonatal human foreskin tissue. Like their(More)
In this report, we provide evidence that NGF and BDNF have functionally antagonistic actions on sympathetic neuron growth and target innervation, with NGF acting via TrkA to promote growth and BDNF via p75NTR to inhibit growth. Specifically, in cultured sympathetic neurons that themselves synthesize BDNF, exogenous BDNF inhibits and function-blocking BDNF(More)
The neurotrophins signal cell survival, differentiation, growth cessation, and apoptosis through two cell surface receptors, the Trks and p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor). Recent advances indicate that the particular events that are mediated by neurotrophins are dependent upon the cell type and the expression pattern of each neurotrophin receptor. For(More)