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A new approach to studying ripple formation in steady flow is proposed, based on a model for the erosion and deposition of the particles. Higher shear stresses at the crests lead to a loss of particles from there, which can suppress the instability induced by fluid inertia. This model accounts for recent observations that ripples do not grow when the fluid(More)
The xylem vessels of trees constitute a model natural microfluidic system. In this work, we have studied the mechanism of air flow in the Populus xylem. The vessel microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) at different length scales. The xylem vessels have length ≈15(More)
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