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Operationally tolerant patients (TOL) display a higher number of blood B cells and transcriptional B cell signature. As they rarely develop an allo-immune response, they could display an abnormal B cell differentiation. We used an in vitro culture system to explore T-dependent differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. B cell phenotype, apoptosis,(More)
Whereas a B cell-transcriptional profile has been recorded for operationally tolerant kidney graft patients, the role that B cells have in this tolerance has not been reported. In this study, we analyzed the role of B cells from operationally tolerant patients, healthy volunteers, and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function on T cell(More)
The role of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in operational tolerance remains elusive, as initial results revealed an increased frequency of this subset in tolerant patients but no functional differences compared with immunosuppressed recipients. In addition, recent studies of regulatory B cells strongly suggest that Tregs may not have a central role in(More)
B cells are essentially described for their capacity to produce antibodies ensuring anti-infectious immunity or deleterious responses in the case of autoimmunity or allergy. However, abundant data described their ability to restrain inflammation by diverse mechanisms. In allergy, some regulatory B-cell subsets producing IL-10 have been recently described as(More)
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) immunosuppressive functions make them attractive candidates for anti-inflammatory therapy in allergic asthma. However, the mechanisms by which they ensure therapeutic effects remain to be elucidated. In an acute mouse model of house dust mite (Der f)-induced asthma, one i.v. MSC injection was sufficient to normalize and stabilize(More)
Autoimmunity, defined as the presence of autoreactive T and/or B lymphocytes in the periphery, is a frequent and probably even physiological condition. It is mainly caused by the fact that the central tolerance mechanisms, which are responsible for counter-selection of autoreactive lymphocytes, are not perfect and thus a limited number of these autoreactive(More)
As a main actor in humoral immunity, B cells participate in various antibody-related disorders. However, a deeper understanding of B-cell differentiation and function is needed in order to decipher their immune-modulatory roles, notably with the recent highlighting of regulatory B cells. microRNAs (miRNAs), key factors in various biological and pathological(More)
BACKGROUND Atopic march refers to the typical transition from a food allergy in early childhood to allergic asthma in older children and adults. However the precise interplay of events involving gut, skin and pulmonary inflammation in this process is not completely understood. OBJECTIVES To develop a mouse model of mixed food and respiratory allergy(More)
Asthma is a major chronic disease ranging from mild to severe refractory disease and is classified into various clinical phenotypes. Severe asthma is difficult to treat and frequently requires high doses of systemic steroids. In some cases, severe asthma even responds poorly to steroids. Several studies have suggested a central role of IL-17 (also called(More)
Human kidney transplantation tolerance exists, but the definition of true tolerance as defined by Billingham and colleagues suffers several key elements that cannot be demonstrated in humans. Indeed, human tolerance in transplantation is defined by different functional and clinical parameters, this is why in clinical transplantation we preferentially talk(More)