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Asthma is a major chronic disease ranging from mild to severe refractory disease and is classified into various clinical phenotypes. Severe asthma is difficult to treat and frequently requires high doses of systemic steroids. In some cases, severe asthma even responds poorly to steroids. Several studies have suggested a central role of IL-17 (also called(More)
As a main actor in humoral immunity, B cells participate in various antibody-related disorders. However, a deeper understanding of B-cell differentiation and function is needed in order to decipher their immune-modulatory roles, notably with the recent highlighting of regulatory B cells. microRNAs (miRNAs), key factors in various biological and pathological(More)
Operationally tolerant patients (TOL) display a higher number of blood B cells and transcriptional B cell signature. As they rarely develop an allo-immune response, they could display an abnormal B cell differentiation. We used an in vitro culture system to explore T-dependent differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. B cell phenotype, apoptosis,(More)
Autoimmunity, defined as the presence of autoreactive T and/or B lymphocytes in the periphery, is a frequent and probably even physiological condition. It is mainly caused by the fact that the central tolerance mechanisms, which are responsible for counter-selection of autoreactive lymphocytes, are not perfect and thus a limited number of these autoreactive(More)
Graft inflammation impairs the induction of solid organ transplant tolerance and enhances acute and chronic rejection. Elucidating the mechanisms by which inflammation is induced after organ transplantation could lead to novel therapeutics to improve transplant outcomes. In this Review we describe endogenous substances--damage-associated molecular patterns(More)
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) immunosuppressive functions make them attractive candidates for anti-inflammatory therapy in allergic asthma. However, the mechanisms by which they ensure therapeutic effects remain to be elucidated. In an acute mouse model of house dust mite (Der f)-induced asthma, one i.v. MSC injection was sufficient to normalize and stabilize(More)
Whereas a B cell-transcriptional profile has been recorded for operationally tolerant kidney graft patients, the role that B cells have in this tolerance has not been reported. In this study, we analyzed the role of B cells from operationally tolerant patients, healthy volunteers, and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function on T cell(More)
B cells are essentially described for their capacity to produce antibodies ensuring anti-infectious immunity or deleterious responses in the case of autoimmunity or allergy. However, abundant data described their ability to restrain inflammation by diverse mechanisms. In allergy, some regulatory B-cell subsets producing IL-10 have been recently described as(More)
BACKGROUND Atopic march refers to the typical transition from a food allergy in early childhood to allergic asthma in older children and adults. However the precise interplay of events involving gut, skin and pulmonary inflammation in this process is not completely understood. OBJECTIVES To develop a mouse model of mixed food and respiratory allergy(More)