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The current histoclinical breast cancer classification is simple but imprecise. Several molecular classifications of breast cancers based on expression profiling have been proposed as alternatives. However, their reliability and clinical utility have been repeatedly questioned, notably because most of them were derived from relatively small initial patient(More)
The serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified and studied in the regulation of glycogen synthesis. GSK-3 functions in a wide range of cellular processes. Aberrant activity of GSK-3 has been implicated in many human pathologies including: bipolar depression, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer,(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is well documented to participate in a complex array of critical cellular processes. It was initially identified in rat skeletal muscle as a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylated and inactivated glycogen synthase. This versatile protein is involved in numerous signaling pathways that influence metabolism,(More)
Development of mammalian B-lineage cells is characterized by progression through a series of checkpoints defined primarily by rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin genes. Progression through these checkpoints is also influenced by stromal cells in the microen-vironment of the primary tissues wherein B-cell development occurs, ie, fetal liver and(More)
In receptor editing, a phenomenon that has recently come to light and into favor, a rearranged VDJ or VJ gene segment encoding a variable region of an Ig chain is replaced by another. In this commentary, the molecular mechanisms involved in the editing process are examined in some detail. Editing is most likely mediated by the same V(D)J recombinase(More)
Bone marrow stromal cells promote B cell development involving recombinase gene-directed rearrangement of the immunoglobulin genes. We observed that the stromal cell-derived cytokine interleukin 7 (IL-7) enhances the expression of CD19 molecules on progenitor B-lineage cells in human bone marrow samples and downregulates the expression of terminal(More)
BACKGROUND New models continue to be required to improve our understanding of colorectal cancer progression. To this aim, we characterised in this study a three-dimensional multicellular tumour model that we named colospheres, directly obtained from mechanically dissociated colonic primary tumours and correlated with metastatic potential. METHODS(More)
We appreciate the authors' comments in their reply: "On the identification of chromosomes with Raman spectroscopy: a critical comment" [Opt. Express 15, 5997 (2007)]. Their main concern with our paper is asking if the collected spectra have shown the identification or differentiation between three human chromosomes. We think this comment is flawed because(More)
Automated classification of biological cells according to their 3D morphology is highly desired in a flow cytometer setting. We have investigated this possibility experimentally and numerically using a diffraction imaging approach. A fast image analysis software based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm has been developed to extract(More)
The MAJORANA collaboration is pursuing the development of the so-called MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The DEMONSTRATOR is intended to perform research and development towards a tonne-scale germanium-based experiment to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76 Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR can also perform a competitive direct dark matter search for light WIMPs(More)