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The substrate specificity of protein kinase-B alpha (PKBalpha, also known as RAC kinase or Akt) was investigated using synthetic peptide substrates related to the sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site on glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The minimum sequence motif required for efficient phosphorylation was Arg-Xaa-Arg-Yaa-Zaa-Ser/Thr-Hyd, where Xaa(More)
The ability of insulin to promote the phosphorylation of some proteins and the dephosphorylation of others is paradoxical. An insulin-stimulated protein kinase is shown to activate the type-1 protein phosphatase that controls glycogen metabolism, by phosphorylating its regulatory subunit at a specific serine. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of this residue(More)
BACKGROUND The activation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as c-Akt) is stimulated by insulin or growth factors and results from its phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. We recently identified a protein kinase, termed PDK1, that phosphorylates PKB at Thr308 only in the presence of lipid vesicles containing phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1; also known as p90rsk) contains two protein kinase domains in a single polypeptide. The N-terminal kinase domain is necessary for the phosphorylation of peptide substrates, whereas the C-terminal kinase domain is required for full activation of the N-terminal domain. Here we identify six(More)
Cyanobacterial neurotoxins have been implicated in animal deaths resulting from drinking contaminated water. Anatoxin-a (AN) and homoanatoxin-a (HMAN) have previously been analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection, but this procedure is insufficiently sensitive and is subject to interferences. A sensitive fluorimetric(More)
Inspection of sequences around sites phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-PK), and homologous sequences from other species, indicates conserved features. There are hydrophobic residues (M, V, L, I) at P-5 and P+4, and at least one basic residue (R, K, H) at P-2, P-3 or P-4. The importance of these residues has been established for AMP-PK(More)
The in vivo phosphorylation state of glycogen synthase was re-examined by fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry and a procedure in which phosphoserine residues are first converted to S-ethylcysteine. In animals injected with the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, the phosphorylation sites in the N-terminal (N) and C-terminal (C) cyanogen bromide(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor protein is tightly regulated in the cell and is phosphorylated at multiple sites by several different protein kinases. We have investigated the phosphorylation of p53 by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, a protein kinase that plays a central role in mediating many mitogenic and differentiation signals. Recombinant wild-type(More)