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The substrate specificity of protein kinase-B alpha (PKBalpha, also known as RAC kinase or Akt) was investigated using synthetic peptide substrates related to the sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site on glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The minimum sequence motif required for efficient phosphorylation was Arg-Xaa-Arg-Yaa-Zaa-Ser/Thr-Hyd, where Xaa(More)
Inspection of sequences around sites phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-PK), and homologous sequences from other species, indicates conserved features. There are hydrophobic residues (M, V, L, I) at P-5 and P+4, and at least one basic residue (R, K, H) at P-2, P-3 or P-4. The importance of these residues has been established for AMP-PK(More)
The ability of insulin to promote the phosphorylation of some proteins and the dephosphorylation of others is paradoxical. An insulin-stimulated protein kinase is shown to activate the type-1 protein phosphatase that controls glycogen metabolism, by phosphorylating its regulatory subunit at a specific serine. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of this residue(More)
BACKGROUND The activation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as c-Akt) is stimulated by insulin or growth factors and results from its phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. We recently identified a protein kinase, termed PDK1, that phosphorylates PKB at Thr308 only in the presence of lipid vesicles containing phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor protein is tightly regulated in the cell and is phosphorylated at multiple sites by several different protein kinases. We have investigated the phosphorylation of p53 by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, a protein kinase that plays a central role in mediating many mitogenic and differentiation signals. Recombinant wild-type(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1; also known as p90rsk) contains two protein kinase domains in a single polypeptide. The N-terminal kinase domain is necessary for the phosphorylation of peptide substrates, whereas the C-terminal kinase domain is required for full activation of the N-terminal domain. Here we identify six(More)
Cyanobacterial neurotoxins have been implicated in animal deaths resulting from drinking contaminated water. Anatoxin-a (AN) and homoanatoxin-a (HMAN) have previously been analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection, but this procedure is insufficiently sensitive and is subject to interferences. A sensitive fluorimetric(More)
The glucosylation site on glycogenin, the protein primer required for de novo glycogen synthesis, has been identified. The glucose is attached at position C1 in a glycosidic linkage with a unique tyrosine, and the sequence surrounding this residue was found to be: His-Leu-Pro-Phe-Ile-Tyr-Asn-Leu-Ser-Ser-Ile-Ser-Ile-Tyr(Glc)-Ser-Tyr-Leu -Pro- Ala-Phe-Lys.(More)
The specificity of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1c) is modified by regulatory subunits that target it to particular subcellular locations. Here, we identify PP1c-binding domains on GL and GM, the subunits that target PP1c to hepatic and muscle glycogen, respectively, and on M110, the subunit that targets PP1c to smooth muscle myosin.(More)