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Although primary and memory responses against bacteria and viruses have been studied extensively, T helper type 2 (T(H)2) effector mechanisms leading to host protection against helminthic parasites remain elusive. Examination of the intestinal epithelial submucosa of mice after primary and secondary infections by a natural gastrointestinal parasite revealed(More)
—Previous studies have shown the possibility of using European Remote Sensing/synthetic aperture radar (ERS/SAR) data to monitor surface soil moisture from space. The linear relationships between soil moisture and the SAR signal have been derived empirically and, thus, were a priori specific to the considered watershed. In order to overcome this limit, this(More)
Parasitic helminth infection has been shown to modulate pathological inflammatory responses in allergy and autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of infection with a helminth parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, on type 1 diabetes (T1D) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in this protection.(More)
Bacillus cereus G9241 was isolated from a welder with a pulmonary anthrax-like illness. The organism contains two megaplasmids, pBCXO1 and pBC218. These plasmids are analogous to the Bacillus anthracis Ames plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 that encode anthrax toxins and capsule, respectively. Here we evaluated the virulence of B. cereus G9241 as well as the(More)
Previous studies have suggested that B cells promote Th2 cell development by inhibiting Th1 cell differentiation. To examine whether B cells are directly required for the development of IL-4-producing T cells in the lymph node during a highly polarized Th2 response, B cell-deficient and wild-type mice were inoculated with the nematode parasite,(More)
We sought to visualize the site of Bacillus anthracis spore germination in vivo. For that purpose, we constructed a reporter plasmid with the lux operon under control of the spore small acid-soluble protein B (sspB) promoter. In B. subtilis, sspB-driven synthesis of luciferase during sporulation results in incorporation of the enzyme in spores. We observed(More)
Infection with the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a potent Th2 response; however, little is known about early stages of the innate response that may contribute to protective immunity. To examine early events in this response, chemokine expression in the draining lymph node was examined after N. brasiliensis inoculation. Pronounced(More)
Current vaccine approaches to combat anthrax are effective; however, they target only a single protein [the protective antigen (PA) toxin component] that is produced after spore germination. PA production is subsequently increased during later vegetative cell proliferation. Accordingly, several aspects of the vaccine strategy could be improved. The(More)
Yersinia pestis (Yp) causes the re-emerging disease plague, and is classified by the CDC and NIAID as a highest priority (Category A) pathogen. Currently, there is no approved human vaccine available and advances in early diagnostics and effective therapeutics are urgently needed. A deep understanding of the mechanisms of host response to Yp infection can(More)
Burkholderia is a diverse genus of gram-negative bacteria that causes high mortality rate in humans, equines and cattle. The lack of effective therapeutic treatments poses serious public health threats. Developing insights toward host-Burkholderia spp. interaction is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of infection as well as identifying therapeutic(More)