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Changes in gene expression are thought to underlie many of the phenotypic differences between species. However, large-scale analyses of gene expression evolution were until recently prevented by technological limitations. Here we report the sequencing of polyadenylated RNA from six organs across ten species that represent all major mammalian lineages(More)
Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species(More)
Despite the apparent robustness of language learning in humans, a large number of children still fail to develop appropriate language skills despite adequate means and opportunity. Most cases of language impairment have a complex etiology, with genetic and environmental influences. In contrast, we describe a three-generation German family who present with(More)
The rapid molecular evolution of reproductive genes is nearly ubiquitous across animals, yet the selective forces and functional targets underlying this divergence remain poorly understood. Humans and closely related species of great apes show strongly divergent mating systems, providing a powerful system to investigate the influence of sperm competition on(More)
Histopathologically, Alzheimer's disease is characterized by plaques and tangles that develop progressively over time. Experimental data described a statin-induced decrease in beta-amyloid production, a major constituent of the plaques. Others reported data on statin-mediated changes in neuronal survival and cytoskeleton, including the(More)
It is now possible to perform whole-genome shotgun sequencing as well as capture of specific genomic regions for extinct organisms. However, targeted resequencing of large parts of nuclear genomes has yet to be demonstrated for ancient DNA. Here we show that hybridization capture on microarrays can successfully recover more than a megabase of target regions(More)
Variation among individuals arises in part from differences in DNA sequences, but the genetic basis for variation in most traits, including common diseases, remains only partly understood. Many DNA variants influence phenotypes by altering the expression level of one or several genes. The effects of such variants can be detected as expression quantitative(More)
To better understand the biology of tameness, i.e. tolerance of human presence and handling, we analyzed two lines of wild-derived rats (Rattus norvegicus) artificially selected for tameness and defensive aggression towards humans. In response to a gloved human hand, tame rats tolerated handling, whereas aggressive rats attacked. Cross-fostering showed that(More)
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal hereditary neurovisceral disorder with diagnostically relevant intracellular accumulation of cholesterol in non-brain tissue, for example the spleen and fibroblasts. In the brain, many ballooned neurons are seen. Using filipin microfluorodensitometry, significant accumulations of free cholesterol in specified(More)
Niemann-Pick type C disease is an inherited neurovisceral storage disorder with intracellular accumulation of cholesterol. In affected brains, many ballooned neurons are seen. Considerable nerve cell loss of unknown pathogenesis leads to neurological deterioration and dementia. Chemical examination of brains has failed to demonstrate increased levels of(More)