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Mutations in the TUBB3 gene, encoding β-tubulin isotype III, were recently shown to be associated with various neurological syndromes which all have in common the ocular motility disorder, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscle type 3 (CFEOM3). Surprisingly and in contrast to previously described TUBA1A and TUBB2B phenotypes, no evidence of(More)
A 4-base pair deletion in the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin gene was associated with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation (MR). In situ hybridization experiments on human fetal brains showed that neurotrypsin was highly expressed in brain structures involved in learning and memory. Immuno-electron microscopy on adult human brain(More)
A subpopulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells located along the length of the lateral ventricles in the subventricular zone (SVZ) have been identified as the multipotent neural stem cells of the adult mammalian brain. We have previously found that, in the adult human brain, a splice variant of GFAP, termed GFAPdelta, was(More)
In type I or classical lissencephaly, two genetic causes, namely the LIS1 gene mapping at 17p13.3 and the DCX (doublecortin on X) gene mapping at Xq22.3 are involved. These are considered to act during corticogenesis on radial migratory pathways. The prevailing view is that heterozygous mutations in the LIS1 gene and hemizygous mutations in the DCX gene(More)
INTRODUCTION Fetal brain evaluation implies a perfect knowledge of the timing and characteristics of the developing nervous system during gestation. DISCUSSION The first half of gestation corresponds to the neurulation, differentiation of primary cerebral vesicles, and neuronogenesis. The second half is characterized by the tremendous growth of the(More)
The smad binding protein 1 gene (SMADIP1, MIM 605802) has been recently identified as a disease causing gene in a polytopic embryonic defect (MIM 235730) including midline anomalies, facial dysmorphic features and enteric nervous system malformation (Hirschsprung disease). To confirm the pleiotropic role of SMADIP1 during embryogenesis and investigate its(More)
Cobblestone lissencephaly represents a peculiar brain malformation with characteristic radiological anomalies, defined as cortical dysplasia combined with dysmyelination, dysplastic cerebellum with cysts and brainstem hypoplasia. Cortical dysplasia results from neuroglial overmigration into the arachnoid space, forming an extracortical layer, responsible(More)
Dystroglycanopathies are a heterogeneous group of muscular dystrophies with autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. The most severe phenotypes are Walker-Warburg Syndrome (WWS) and muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB) presenting with lissencephaly type II (LIS II) and in which muscular dystrophy is associated(More)
Joubert syndrome (JS) and Meckel syndrome (MKS) are pleiotropic ciliopathies characterized by severe defects of the cerebellar vermis, ranging from hypoplasia to aplasia. Interestingly, ciliary conditional mutant mice have a hypoplastic cerebellum in which the proliferation of cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCPs) in response to Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is(More)
Mutated doublecortin (DCX) gives rise to severe abnormalities in human cortical development. Adult Dcx knockout mice show no major neocortical defects but do have a disorganized hippocampus. We report here the developmental basis of these hippocampal abnormalities. A heterotopic band of neurons was identified starting at E17.5 in the CA3 region and(More)