Fátima Aparecida dos Santos

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Methylation at the 5' position of cytosine in DNA has important roles in genome function and is dynamically reprogrammed during early embryonic and germ cell development. The mammalian genome also contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which seems to be generated by oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by the TET family of enzymes that are highly expressed(More)
Dynamic epigenetic modification of the genome occurs during early development of the mouse. Active demethylation of the paternal genome occurs in the zygote, followed by passive demethylation during cleavage stages, and de novo methylation, which is thought to happen after implantation. We have investigated these processes by using indirect(More)
Epigenetic marking systems confer stability of gene expression during mammalian development. Genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming occurs at stages when developmental potency of cells changes. At fertilization, the paternal genome exchanges protamines for histones, undergoes DNA demethylation, and acquires histone modifications, whereas the maternal genome(More)
Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming occurs in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) and preimplantation embryos, but the precise dynamics and biological outcomes are largely unknown. We have carried out whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq) and RNA-Seq across key stages from E6.5 epiblast to E16.5 PGCs. Global loss of methylation takes place during(More)
Current human pluripotent stem cells lack the transcription factor circuitry that governs the ground state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC). Here, we report that short-term expression of two components, NANOG and KLF2, is sufficient to ignite other elements of the network and reset the human pluripotent state. Inhibition of ERK and protein kinase C(More)
Mouse embryos undergo genome-wide methylation reprogramming by demethylation in early preimplantation development, followed by remethylation thereafter. Here we show that genome-wide reprogramming is conserved in several mammalian species and ask whether it also occurs in embryos cloned with the use of highly methylated somatic donor nuclei. Normal bovine,(More)
On fertilisation, gametes undergo epigenetic reorganisation and re-establish totipotency. Here, we investigate links between chromatin remodelling and asymmetric maintenance of DNA methylation in the early mouse embryo. Using antibodies for lysine specific H3 methylation reveals that the male pronucleus is negative for di- and trimethyl H3-K9 yet the female(More)
H+-ATPases are ubiquitous in nature; V-ATPases pump protons against an electrochemical gradient, whereas F-ATPases reverse the process, synthesizing ATP. We demonstrate here that mutations in ATP6B1, encoding the B-subunit of the apical proton pump mediating distal nephron acid secretion, cause distal renal tubular acidosis, a condition characterized by(More)
During differentiation, somatic nuclei acquire highly specialized DNA and chromatin modifications, which are thought to result in cellular memory of the differentiated state. Upon somatic nuclear transfer into oocytes, the donor nucleus may have to undergo reprogramming of these epigenetic marks in order to achieve totipotency. This may involve changes in(More)
Genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation takes place in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and early embryos and is linked with pluripotency. Inhibition of Erk1/2 and Gsk3β signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by small-molecule inhibitors (called 2i) has recently been shown to induce hypomethylation. We show by whole-genome bisulphite sequencing that 2i(More)