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This article aims to reestablish the long-standing conjecture that conformity is high at the middle and low at either end of a status order. On a theoretical level, the article clarifies the basis for expecting such an inverted U-shaped curve, taking care to specify key scope conditions on the social-psychological orientations of the actors , the(More)
Much research in sociology and labor economics studies proxies for productivity; consequently, little is known about the relationship between personal contacts and worker performance. This study addresses , for the first time, the role of referral contacts on workers' performance. Using employees' hiring and performance data in a call center, the author(More)
and my colleagues in the Arguments and Evidence workshop at the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business for their help and encouragement. In addition, audiences at Stanford, Harvard, Northwestern, and MIT were extremely valuable. Katherine Schipper and J. Douglas Hanna provided assistance with the Zacks data. All mistakes are my own, of course.(More)
This study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and inequality by investigating the central role of merit-based reward systems in shaping gender and racial disparities in wages and promotions. The author develops and tests a set of propositions isolating processes of performance-reward bias, whereby women and minorities receive(More)
We show that if actors are defined as more knowledgeable when they possess more information, and if actors are defined as more powerful when they can extract greater surplus while exchanging resources, there is a fundamental trade-off in the social structural foundations of power and knowledge. This trade-off derives from the opposing implications of having(More)
Agency theory suggests that the interests of opportunistic, self-interested agents conflict with those of principals. Stewardship theory suggests instead that executives' interests are aligned with company interests and that executives are thus more intrin-sically motivated than agency theory implies. This study develops hypotheses regarding the(More)
All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission, provided that full credit including © notice is given to the source. Chicago business schools for guidance and feedback. We take full responsibility for remaining errors. Abstract We provide a framework for reconciling two seemingly(More)