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These experiments provide an explanation for the observation that two intravenous injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) spaced 5 h apart in rabbits cause tumor necrosis factor/cachectin (TNF) levels to rise in the blood only after the first LPS injection. Herein we show that treatment of elicited peritoneal exudate rabbit macrophages (PEM) with two doses(More)
LPS-binding protein (LBP) binds with high affinity (Kd approximately equal to 10(-9) M) to lipid A of LPS isolated from rough (R)- or smooth (S)-form Gram-negative bacteria as well as to lipid A partial structures such as precursor IVA. To define the role of LBP in regulating responses to LPS we have examined TNF release in rabbit peritoneal exudate(More)
Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has been shown to be the principal mediator of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin-induced shock. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that TNF-alpha plays a beneficial role in controlling bacterial infections when multiplication of the microorganism is required to kill the host. Using an infant rat model of Neisseria(More)
Macrophages are induced by LPS to release a number of products that determine the host response during gram negative sepsis. To examine the role of one such substance, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in mediating LPS-induced injury, we employed a rabbit model of endotoxic shock to (a) determine the kinetics and extent of release of TNF into plasma after(More)
Isolated cervical spinous process fractures are common, but are usually considered to be inconsequential. Although such fractures may produce pain, complete recovery without residual symptoms is expected after conservative treatment, and neurological injury does not usually occur. The case of a patient with a persistently symptomatic C-2 spinous process(More)
Exposure of rabbit peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) or whole blood to picomolar concentrations of LPS induces adaptation or hyporesponsiveness to LPS. Because of the importance of plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP) and the macrophage cell membrane protein CD14 in recognition of LPS, we examined the effect of LBP on LPS-induced adaptation in PEM. PEM(More)
During Gram-negative endotoxemia, precise regulation of monocyte/macrophage (M phi) responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is critical to preserve host defense while avoiding complications such as organ failure and death. We will discuss regulation of LPS-M phi interactions by LPS-binding plasma proteins and by LPS-induced changes in M phi(More)
The syndrome of traumatic spinal cord injury without spinal column fracture is well known and predominantly involves the cervical spine of children. One case of a thoracic spinal cord injury without bony abnormalities in an adult is reported, and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Although spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality may exist,(More)
Autophagy, a process of regulated turnover of cellular constituents, is essential for normal growth control but may be defective under pathological conditions. The Ras/PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway negatively regulates autophagy. Ras signaling has been documented in a large number of human cancers. In this in-vitro study we examined the effect of the Ras(More)
The Ras family of small GTPases transmits extracellular signals that regulate cell growth, differentiation, motility and death. Ras signaling is constitutively active in a large number of human cancers. Ras can also regulate autophagy by affecting several signaling pathways including the mTOR pathway. Autophagy is a process that regulates the balance(More)