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Inborn defects in nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) can paradoxically result in elevated cancer incidence (xeroderma pigmentosum [XP]) or segmental progeria without cancer predisposition (Cockayne syndrome [CS] and trichothiodystrophy [TTD]). We report generation of a knockin mouse model for the combined disorder XPCS with a G602D-encoding mutation in(More)
The tumour suppressor p53 is one of the most important cancer genes. Previous findings have shown that p53 expression can influence DNA adduct formation of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in human cells, indicating a role for p53 in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1-mediated biotransformation of BaP in vitro. We investigated the potential role(More)
In vitro models for hepatotoxicity testing are a necessity for advancement of toxicological research. Assessing the in vitro response requires in vivo validated gene sets reflective of the hepatotoxic phenotype. Cholestasis, the impairment of bile flow, is induced in C57BL/6J mice treated with cyclosporine A (CsA) to identify phenotype reflective gene sets.(More)
The leucine-rich repeat-containing heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) has been identified as a marker of cycling stem cells in several epithelial tissues, including small intestine, colon, stomach and hair follicle. To investigate whether LGR5 also marks mammary epithelial stem cells, we performed in situ(More)
An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over(More)
The expression of the tumor suppressor p53 can influence the bioactivation of, and DNA damage induced by, the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, indicating a role for p53 in its cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation. The carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), which is formed during the cooking of food, is also(More)
Insulin analogues are structurally modified molecules with altered pharmaco-kinetic and -dynamic properties compared to regular human insulin used by diabetic patients. While these compounds are tested for undesired mitogenic effects, an epidemiological discussion is ongoing regarding an association between insulin analogue therapy and increased cancer(More)
The tumor suppressor gene p53 has an apparent role in breast tumor development in humans, as approximately 30% of sporadic tumors acquire p53 mutations and Li-Fraumeni syndrome patients carrying germ line p53 mutations frequently develop breast tumors at early age. In the present study, conditional expression of a targeted mutation is used to analyze the(More)
p53 alterations in human tumors often involve missense mutations that may confer dominant-negative or gain-of-function properties. Dominant-negative effects result in inactivation of wild-type p53 protein in heterozygous mutant cells and as such in a p53 null phenotype. Gain-of-function effects can directly promote tumor development or metastasis through(More)
The tumour-modulating effects of the endogenous adaptive immune system are rather paradoxical. Whereas some clinical and experimental observations offer compelling evidence for the existence of immunosurveillance, other studies have revealed promoting effects of the adaptive immune system on primary cancer development and metastatic disease. We examined the(More)