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Glia plays a crucial role in the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis in the central nervous system. The microglial production of immune factors is believed to play an important role in nociceptive transmission. Pain may now be considered a neuro-immune disorder, since it is known that the activation of immune and immune-like glial cells in the dorsal root(More)
A role of neuropeptides in neuropathic pain development has been implicated; however, the neuroimmune interactions that are involved in the underlying mechanisms may be more important than previously thought. To examine a potential role of relations between glia cells and neuropeptides in neuropathic pain, we performed competitive reverse-transcription(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) acts by cleaving synaptosome-associated-protein-25 (SNAP-25) in nerve terminals to inhibit neuronal release and shows long-lasting antinociceptive action in neuropathic pain. However, its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Our study aimed to characterize BoNT/A-induced neuroimmunological changes after(More)
The pharmacological attenuation of glial activation represents a novel approach for controlling neuropathic pain, but the role of microglial and astroglial cells is not well established. To better understand the potential role of two types of glial cells, microglia and astrocytes, in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, we examined markers associated with(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to be involved in the mechanisms of pain generation throughout the nervous system. We examined the effects of intrathecally (i.t.) administered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on the antinociceptive effects of morphine and endomorphin-1 during acute pain and in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-exposed rats. We(More)
BACKGROUND Neuropathic pain is clinically challenging because it is resistant to alleviation by morphine. The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways may be involved in the development of neuropathic pain. The aim of our study was to examine the influence of a chronic,(More)
In neuropathic pain the repeated minocycline treatment inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of the microglial markers and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The minocycline diminished the pronociceptive (IL-6, IL-18), but not antinociceptive (IL-1alpha, IL-4, IL-10) cytokines at the spinal cord level. In vitro primary cell culture studies have shown that(More)
Neuropathic pain is the most common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms involved in the development of diabetic neuropathy include changes in the blood vessels that supply the peripheral nerves; metabolic disorders, such as the enhanced activation of the polyol pathway; myo-inositol depletion; and increased non-enzymatic glycation.(More)
Neuropathic pain is a severe clinical problem, often appearing as a co-symptom of many diseases or manifesting as a result of damage to the nervous system. Many drugs and agents are currently used for the treatment of neuropathic pain, such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). The aims of this paper were to test the effects of two classic TCAs, doxepin and(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) antinociception, which is mediated selectively by the N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP), was demonstrated in pain models. In this study, we determine the role of activated microglia on the analgesic effects of N/OFQ in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. Repeated 7-day(More)