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A role of neuropeptides in neuropathic pain development has been implicated; however, the neuroimmune interactions that are involved in the underlying mechanisms may be more important than previously thought. To examine a potential role of relations between glia cells and neuropeptides in neuropathic pain, we performed competitive reverse-transcription(More)
The pharmacological attenuation of glial activation represents a novel approach for controlling neuropathic pain, but the role of microglial and astroglial cells is not well established. To better understand the potential role of two types of glial cells, microglia and astrocytes, in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, we examined markers associated with(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to be involved in the mechanisms of pain generation throughout the nervous system. We examined the effects of intrathecally (i.t.) administered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on the antinociceptive effects of morphine and endomorphin-1 during acute pain and in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-exposed rats. We(More)
BACKGROUND Neuropathic pain is clinically challenging because it is resistant to alleviation by morphine. The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways may be involved in the development of neuropathic pain. The aim of our study was to examine the influence of a chronic,(More)
A single streptozotocin (STZ) injection in mice can induce significant neuropathic pain along with an increase in plasma glucose levels and a decrease in body weight. Seven days after the administration of STZ, an upregulation of C1q-positive cells was observed. Additionally, interleukins (IL-1beta, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL12p70, IL-17); proteins of the(More)
Despite many advances, our understanding of the involvement of prodynorphin systems in the development of neuropathic pain is not fully understood. Recent studies suggest an important role of neuro-glial interactions in the dynorphin effects associated with neuropathic pain conditions. Our studies show that minocycline reduced prodynorphin mRNA levels that(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) antinociception, which is mediated selectively by the N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP), was demonstrated in pain models. In this study, we determine the role of activated microglia on the analgesic effects of N/OFQ in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. Repeated 7-day(More)
BACKGROUND The molecular mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain are constantly being studied to create new opportunities to prevent or alleviate neuropathic pain. The aim of our study was to determine the gene expression changes induced by sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) that are modulated by minocycline, which can effectively diminish(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) acts by cleaving synaptosome-associated-protein-25 (SNAP-25) in nerve terminals to inhibit neuronal release and shows long-lasting antinociceptive action in neuropathic pain. However, its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Our study aimed to characterize BoNT/A-induced neuroimmunological changes after(More)
The current knowledge of the pharmacological actions of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) has slowly evolved through their over 40-year history. Chronic pain represents one of the most important public health problems, and antidepressants are an essential part of the therapeutic strategy in addition to classical analgesics. This article reviews the(More)