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Behavioral sensitization and tolerance to repetitive exposure to addictive drugs are commonly used for the assessment of the early stages of the drug dependence progress in animals. The orchestra of tools for studying the progress of drug dependence in laboratory rodents has been considerably enriched in the 1980s by the introduction of ultrasonic(More)
Although the natural hosts for bacteriophages are bacteria, a growing body of data shows that phages can also interact with some populations of mammalian cells, especially with cells of the immune system. In general, these interactions include two main aspects. The first is the phage immunogenicity, that is, the capacity of phages to induce specific immune(More)
This study assessed behaviour, as measured by 50kHz calls related to positive affect, in rats with different fear conditioned response strengths: low-anxiety rats (LR) and high-anxiety rats (HR), after amphetamine injection in a two-injection protocol (TIPS). The results showed that the first dose of amphetamine evoked similar behavioural effects in(More)
A satisfactory pharmacological cure for addictions to psychostimulants has not yet been developed. Because of the well-known role of changes in the corticoaccumbal and corticostriatal glutamatergic system(s) in drug seeking and relapses in psychostimulant addiction, much hope is presently linked to the use of agents that restore glutamate homeostasis. In(More)
Our previous studies showed promise for using sensitization of the frequency-modulated 50-kHz vocalization response to amphetamine (AMPH) as an index of rat vulnerability to AMPH addiction. This study aimed to test the utility of sensitizing frequency-modulated (FM) 50-kHz vocalization in the AMPH self-administration paradigm as well as the ability of(More)
This study utilised the two injection protocol of sensitisation (TIPS) and the conditioned place preference test to validate and extend previous findings on the effects of amphetamine on positive reinforcement-related 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisation (USV) in rats. We also examined changes in the expression of c-Fos and the NMDA receptor 2B (GluN2B) subunit,(More)
Individuals predisposed to addiction constitute a minority of drug users, in both humans and animal models of the disorder, but there are no established characteristics that would allow identifying them beforehand. Our studies demonstrate that sensitization of rat 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) response to amphetamine shows marked inter-individual(More)
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