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Bunyaviruses have a genome comprising three segments of negative-sense RNA. The smallest RNA segment, S, encodes the nucleocapsid protein, N, and a nonstructural protein, NSs, in overlapping reading frames. The sequences of the S genome RNA segments of seven bunyaviruses (Batai, Cache Valley, Guaroa, Kairi, Main Drain, Northway and Lumbo) were determined(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a ubiquitously expressed receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the etiology of several human cancers. Cetuximab is an EGFR-blocking antibody that has been approved for the treatment of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic colorectal cancer. Previous reports have shown that EGFR(More)
We describe a convenient system for analyzing bunyavirus transcription using a recombinant RNA template derived from the plasmid pBUNSCAT, which comprises a negative-sense reporter gene (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase or CAT) flanked by the exact 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the Bunyamwera virus (BUN) S RNA segment. When cells which expressed(More)
Molecular paleoecology is the application of molecular data to test hypotheses made by paleoecological scenarios. Here, we use gene regulatory analysis to test between two competing paleoecological scenarios put forth to explain the evolution of complex life cycles. The first posits that early bilaterians were holobenthic, and the evolution of macrophagous(More)
The small (S) genomic segment of Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) encodes the nucleocapsid protein, N, and a nonstructural protein, NSs, in overlapping reading frames. In order to elucidate the function of NSs, we established a plasmid-based minireplicon system using mammalian cells that express large amounts of T7 RNA polymerase.(More)
In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNAs undergo extensive processing in the nucleus prior to export. Processing is subject to a quality-control mechanism that retains improperly processed transcripts at or near sites of transcription. A poly(A) tail added by the normal 3'-processing machinery is necessary but not sufficient for export. Retention depends on the(More)
The genome of Bunyamwera virus (BUN; family Bunyaviridae) consists of three segments of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA that are called L (large), M (medium) and S (small), according to their size. The genomic RNAs are encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein to form ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). The terminal 3' and 5' non-coding sequences(More)
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a rhabdovirus that alters host nuclear and cytoplasmic function upon infection. We have investigated the effect of VSV infection on cellular signaling through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3k)/Akt signaling pathway. Akt phosphorylation at both threonine 308 (Thr308) and serine 473 (Ser473) was inhibited in cells(More)
Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype of both the Orthobunyavirus genus and the Bunyaviridae family of segmented negative sense RNA viruses. The tripartite BUNV genome consists of small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments that are transcribed to give a single mRNA and replicated to generate an antigenome that is the template for synthesis of further(More)
As obligate parasites of cellular processes, viruses must take over cellular macromolecular machinery. It is also becoming clear that viruses routinely control intracellular signaling pathways through the direct or indirect control of kinases and phosphatases. This control of cellular phosphoproteins is important to promote a variety of viral processes,(More)