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To acquire one's native phonological system, language-specific phonological categories and relationships must be extracted from the input. The acquisition of the categories and relationships has each in its own right been the focus of intense research. However, it is remarkable that research on the acquisition of categories and the relations between them(More)
We report on an architecture for the unsupervised discovery of talker-invariant subword embeddings. It is made out of two components: a dynamic-time warping based spoken term discovery (STD) system and a Siamese deep neural network (DNN). The STD system clusters word-sized repeated fragments in the acoustic streams while the DNN is trained to minimize the(More)
We summarize the accomplishments of a multi-disciplinary workshop exploring the computational and scientific issues surrounding zero resource (unsupervised) speech technologies and related models of early language acquisition. Centered around the tasks of phonetic and lexical discovery, we consider unified evaluation metrics, present two new approaches for(More)
The question of whether epistemic modals contribute to the truth conditions of the sentences they appear in is a matter of active debate in the literature. Fueling this debate is the lack of consensus about the extent to which epistemics can appear in the scope of other operators. This corpus study investigates the distribution of epistemics in naturalistic(More)
Electrically induced seizures were followed by temporary elevations in serum prolactin over baseline in rats, while electrical irritation made no change. Naloxone 4 mg/kg i.p. pretreatment preserved this pattern but attenuated all levels including baseline by about 50%. While atropine 0.1 mg/kg s.c. did not change baseline levels, the prolactin levels after(More)
generative grammars have traditionally been studied under the assumption that they are implementation independent. It is assumed, for example, that eventually we will be able to write software or build hardware to implement the human language system in computers that differ from human ‘hardware’ in many respects. As such, this is taken as evidence for(More)
The basic representational hypothesis in phonology is that segments are coded using a universal set of discrete features. We propose a method for quantitatively measuring how well such features align with arbitrary segment representations. We assess articulatory, spectral, and phonotactic representations of English consonants. Our procedure constructs a(More)
This paper is about degrees in natural language; or rather, how they enter into the compositional semantics of sentences containing degree words like more, as, too and enough, and others. I first discuss the strongest semantic evidence I know of for treating degree constructions with gradable adjectives as distinctly di↵erent from those with nouns and(More)
In this paper we introduce an inductive bias for language acquisition under a view where learning of the various levels of linguistic structure takes place interactively. The bias encourages the learner to choose sound systems that lead to more “semantically coherent” lexicons. We quantify this coherence using an intrinsic and unsupervised measure of(More)
Recent works have explored deep architectures for learning multimodal speech representation (e.g. audio and images, articulation and audio) in a supervised way. Here we investigate the role of combining different speech modalities, i.e. audio and visual information representing the lips? movements, in a weakly supervised way using Siamese networks and(More)