Learn More
Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation for 6 h per day on one or three successive days to 0, 2, 6 or 20 ppm formaldehyde or 0, 0.2 or 0.6 ppm acrolein. Nasal and tracheal epithelial and free lung cells were then analyzed for proliferative responses. The proliferative response was expressed as the proportion of DNA synthesizing cells determined(More)
Cigarette mainstream smoke from blended research cigarettes with and without the addition of ingredients was analyzed for its chemical composition. In total, 333 ingredients commonly used in cigarette manufacturing were assigned to three different groups. Each group of ingredients was introduced at a low and a high level to the test cigarettes. The list of(More)
Eight blended US market cigarettes, two blended reference cigarettes, one Bright tobacco only reference cigarette and an electrically heated prototype cigarette (EHC) were smoked under US Federal Trade Commission (FTC)/International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) conditions and under Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) conditions. Smoke(More)
The chemical composition of mainstream smoke from an electrically heated cigarette (EHC) and that of mainstream smoke from the University of Kentucky Reference Cigarette 1R4F was analyzed. In contrast to the 1R4F, which is a conventional, lit-end cigarette, the EHC is smoked in a microprocessor-controlled lighter with electrical heater elements. The(More)
In vitro cell transformation assays detect transformed cells that have acquired the distinct characteristics of malignant cells and thus model one stage of in vivo carcinogenesis. These assays have been proposed as surrogate models for predicting the non-genotoxic carcinogenic potential of chemicals. The Bhas 42 cell transformation assay, a short-term assay(More)
The effects of the addition of ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette (EHC) prototype on smoke composition and toxicity were quantified and the underlying mechanisms investigated. Smoke from EHC prototypes with and without AMP and from conventional cigarettes, i.e. the University of Kentucky Standard Reference(More)
A typical Indonesian kretek cigarette brand and an experimental kretek reference cigarette were compared to the reference cigarette 2R4F in two 90-day inhalation studies. Male and female rats were exposed nose-only to mainstream smoke for 6 hours daily, for 90 consecutive days. Biological endpoints were assessed according to OECD guideline 413, with special(More)
The biological activity of mainstream smoke from experimental kretek cigarettes with and without three mixes of ingredients was assessed in a 90-day rat inhalation study and in a 4-day in vivo micronucleus assay. 350 ingredients, commonly used in various combinations and in a limited number in a given brand in the manufacture of marketed kretek cigarettes,(More)
Cigarette mainstream smoke from blended cigarettes with and without the addition of ingredients was assayed for its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. In total, 333 ingredients commonly used in cigarette manufacturing were assigned to three different groups. Each group of ingredients was added at a low and a high level to the test cigarettes. The mutagenicity(More)
The Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System Series K (EHCSS) produces smoke through the controlled electrical heating of tobacco. Evaluation of the EHCSS was accomplished by comparison with commercial and reference cigarettes, using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and alternative puffing regimens based on nicotine exposures(More)