Ewald R Stiehm

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BACKGROUND Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets need to be determined in a large, urban, minority-predominant cohort of healthy children to serve as suitable control subjects for the interpretation of the appearance of these cells in several disease conditions, notably pediatric HIV-1 infection. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the distribution of(More)
The X-linked hyper-IgM (XHIGM) syndrome is an uncommon primary immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the gene for CD40 ligand and characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM, reduced levels of IgG and IgA, and defective T-cell function. Because of its rarity, it has been difficult for any single investigator or institution to develop a(More)
BACKGROUND Assay of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in dried blood spots obtained at birth permits population-based newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). OBJECTIVE We sought to report the first 2 years of TREC NBS in California. METHODS Since August 2010, California has conducted SCID NBS. A high-throughput TREC(More)
IMPORTANCE Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using assays to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) began in Wisconsin in 2008, and SCID was added to the national recommended uniform panel for newborn screened disorders in 2010. Currently 23 states, the District of Columbia, and the Navajo Nation conduct population-wide(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal, obstetrical, and infant-related factors associated with the risk of perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were identified before the widespread use of zidovudine therapy in pregnant women. The risk factors for transmission when women and infants receive zidovudine are not well characterized. METHODS We(More)
A major diagnostic intervention in the consideration of many patients suspected to have primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) is the application and interpretation of vaccination. Specifically, the antibody response to antigenic challenge with vaccines can provide substantive insight into the status of human immune function. There are numerous vaccines(More)
Antibodies have been used for over a century in the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. They are used most commonly for the prevention of measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, varicella, rabies, and vaccinia. Although their use in the treatment of bacterial infection has largely been supplanted by antibiotics, antibodies remain a critical(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if there are levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) associated with a high or low risk of perinatal transmission and to ascertain the mechanism by which zidovudine treatment reduces perinatal transmission. DESIGN A nonrandomized prospective cohort study. SETTING University medical center and two general hospital(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to describe rates of and risk factors for complications by delivery mode among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with CD4 counts of < or = 500/microL. STUDY DESIGN Complication rates were calculated by delivery mode, as follows: planned cesarean delivery performed without labor or rupture of membranes, other cesarean delivery(More)