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Cholesterol is known to modulate the physical properties of cell membranes, but its direct involvement in cellular signaling has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we show that cholesterol specifically binds many PDZ domains found in scaffold proteins, including the N-terminal PDZ domain of NHERF1/EBP50. This modular domain has a cholesterol-binding(More)
Controlled distribution of lipids across various cell membranes is crucial for cell homeostasis and regulation. We developed an imaging method that allows simultaneous in situ quantification of cholesterol in two leaflets of the plasma membrane (PM) using tunable orthogonal cholesterol sensors. Our imaging revealed marked transbilayer asymmetry of PM(More)
The bacterial nutritional and stress alarmone ppGpp and its co-factor DksA directly bind RNA polymerase to regulate its activity at certain sigma70-dependent promoters. A number of promoters that are dependent on alternative sigma-factors function poorly in the absence of ppGpp. These include the Pseudomonas-derived sigma54-dependent Po promoter and several(More)
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