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1. Ethanol and nicotine are commonly coabused drugs. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) metabolizes ethanol and bioactivates tobacco-derived procarcinogens. Ethanol and nicotine can induce hepatic CYP2E1 and we hypothesized that both centrally active drugs could also induce CYP2E1 within the brain. 2. Male rats were treated with saline, ethanol (3.0 g kg(-1) by(More)
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is expressed in liver, brain and other extrahepatic tissues where it metabolizes a range of centrally acting drugs and toxins. As ethanol can induce CYP2D in rat brain, we hypothesized that CYP2D6 expression is higher in brains of human alcoholics. We examined regional and cellular expression of CYP2D6 mRNA and protein by RT-PCR,(More)
The nonspecific P2 receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS), the nonspecific P1 receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulphophenyl)-theophylline (8-SPT) and the combination of both were applied by retrograde microdialysis into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) before and during feeding of 18-h food-deprived rats. In addition to the(More)
RATIONALE Previous experiments have shown that P2 receptor activation increases the release of dopamine in the mesolimbic mesocortical system. OBJECTIVE In order to investigate the functional correlates of dopaminergic stimulation, EEG and behavioural responses to injection of the P2 receptor agonist 2-methylthio ATP (2-MeSATP) into the nucleus accumbens(More)
BACKGROUND CYP2B6 is the primary enzyme involved in bupropion (Zyban; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2B6, such as CYP2B6*6, can alter bupropion metabolism and may affect bupropion treatment outcome. METHODS Subjects participated in a smoking cessation clinical trial of bupropion versus(More)
OBJECTIVES CYP2D6 levels are higher in many brain regions of human smokers in comparison with nonsmokers. We have shown that CYP2D is expressed in rat brain regions and that enzyme activities correlate with protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels. The aims of this study were to investigate whether nicotine can induce rat brain CYP2D, to(More)
The effects of the P2 receptor ligands 2-methylthio ATP (2-MeSATP; 10 pmol)--as a non-specific agonist--and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS; 10 pmol)--as a non-selective antagonist--after bilateral intra-accumbens injection on the locomotor response were investigated in an open field situation. The P2 receptor-mediated effects(More)
The formation of cotinine, the main proximate metabolite and a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is mediated primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6. Our aim was to determine whether higher cotinine levels in young children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) are a result of age-related differences in pharmacokinetics. Forty-nine participants, aged 2-84 months,(More)
The low-molecular-mass, cyclic analog of neuropeptide Y, [Ahx5-24, gamma-Glu2-epsilon-Lys30] NPY (YESK-Ahx-RHYINKITRQRY; Ahx, 6-aminohexanoic acid; NPY, neuropeptide Y), was synthesized and investigated for receptor binding, inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, inhibition of electrically stimulated rat vas deferens contractions and ability(More)
BACKGROUND Variation in the CYP2A6 gene alters the rate of nicotine metabolic inactivation and is associated with smoking behaviors and cessation success rates. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this genetic influence are unknown. METHODS Intrinsic functional connectivity strength, a whole-brain, data-driven, graph theory-based method, was(More)
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