Ewa Grajkowska

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The neuropeptidase glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) hydrolyzes N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) to liberate N-acetylaspartate and glutamate. GCPII was originally cloned as PSMA, an M(r) 100,000 type II transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in prostate tissues. PSMA/GCPII is located on the short arm of chromosome 11 and functions as both a(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that enhances the hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides. In addition to its role in synaptic transmission and plasticity, mGlu1 has been shown to be involved in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. In this capacity, we have reported previously that in neuronal cells, mGlu1a(More)
The peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) acts as an agonist at group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). NAAG is inactivated by extracellular peptidase activity yielding glutamate and N-acetylaspartate. We recently developed a series of potent NAAG peptidase inhibitors, including ZJ-11, ZJ-17 and ZJ-43. In the present study,(More)
Recent genetic and pharmacological studies have suggested that the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) may represent a druggable target in identifying new therapeutics for the treatment of various central nervous system disorders including drug abuse. In particular, considerable attention in the mGluR5 field has been devoted to identifying(More)
The metabotropic glutamate 1a (mGlu1a) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor linked with phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and with β-arrestin-1-mediated sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and cytoprotective signaling. Previously, we reported the existence of ligand bias at this receptor, inasmuch as glutamate induced(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1 and mGluR5 stimulate phospholipase C, leading to an increased inositol trisphosphate level and to Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Cyclothiazide (CTZ), known as a blocker of AMPA receptor desensitization, produced a non-competitive inhibition of [Ca(2+)](i) increases induced by mGluR agonists in HEK 293 cells(More)
Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with several diseases, including coronary artery disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and spina bifida. However, the mechanisms for their pathogenesis are unknown but could involve the interaction of homocysteine or its metabolites with molecular targets such as neurotransmitter receptors,(More)
Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors have been often implicated in various models of neuronal toxicity, however, the role played by the individual receptors and their putative mechanisms of action contributing to neurotoxicity or neuroprotection remain unclear. Here, using primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells and mouse cortical neurons, we(More)
Noncompetitive antagonists of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) have been implicated as potential therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of nervous system disorders, including pain, anxiety, and drug addiction. To discover novel noncompetitive antagonists to the mGluR5, we initiated an SAR study around the known lead(More)
The majority of existing research on the function of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor 1 focuses on G protein-mediated outcomes. However, similar to other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), it is becoming apparent that mGlu1 receptor signaling is multi-dimensional and does not always involve G protein activation. Previously, in transfected CHO cells,(More)