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Amikacin is principally used to treat infections caused by microorganisms resistant to other aminoglycosides. Ototoxicity is one of the side effects of amikacin, but the causative mechanism of damage to the ear has not been fully established. Thus, the aim of this work was to examine the impact of amikacin on the melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system(More)
The article presents the melanogenesis pathway and the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) in regulation of this process. Products of melanogenesis are eu- and/or pheomelanins synthesized in a multistage process of tyrosine oxidation and polymerization. The conversions require the presence of(More)
There have been described serious adverse events caused by ciprofloxacin in pigmented tissues. It is known that some fluoroquinolones bind well to melanin rich tissues, but the relation between their affinity to melanin and the skin or eye toxicity is not well documented. The aim of this study was to examine whether ciprofloxacin binds to melanin, and how(More)
One of the recognized side effects of gentamicin is ototoxicity. The mechanism underlying the organ specificity of this side effect of gentamicin has not been fully established. In view of the fact that a number of pharmacologic agents are known to form complexes with melanin and melanin is an abundant constituent of the inner ear tissues, we determined(More)
Aminoglycosides, broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotics, are used in various infections therapy due to their good antimicrobial characteristics. However, their adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity and auditory ototoxicity, as well as some toxic effects directed to pigmented tissues, complicate the use of these agents. This study was undertaken to(More)
The aim of this study was to examine in vitro the interaction between aminoglycoside antibiotics displaying adverse ototoxic effects and melanin which is a constituent of the inner ear. The binding of neomycin, tobramycin and amikacin to model synthetic melanin was studied. It has been demonstrated that all the investigated aminoglycosides form stable(More)
Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with an antituberculosis activity commonly used in clinical practice due to its good antimicrobial characteristics. A well-known undesirable side effect of this drug is ototoxicity, which may be caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species and loss of melanocytes in the inner ear. The aim of this study was(More)
Ototoxicity is one of the well known side effects of kanamycin. The mechanism underlying the organ specificity of the side effect is not understood. Since many pharmacologic agents are known to form complexes with melanin and melanin is an abundant constituent of the inner ear, we investigated whether kanamycin interacts with melanin and how this process(More)
The aim of this study was to examine in vitro the binding capacity of three phenothiazine derivatives--chlorpromazine, fluphenazine and trifluoperazine--causing adverse effects in the eye structures, to natural melanin isolated from pig eyes as well as to synthetic DOPA-melanin used as a model polymer. The amount of drug bound to melanin was determined by(More)
It is known that various drugs form complexes with melanins and that melanins are abundant constituents of the inner ear. In this study, we determined whether the aminoglycoside antibiotic, netilmicin, interacts with melanin and how this process affects collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. The obtained results indicate that netilmicin(More)