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Internationally accepted exposure-response relationships show that railway noise causes less annoyance than road traffic and aircraft noise. Railway transport, both passenger and freight transport, is increasing, and new railway lines are planned for environmental reasons. The combination of more frequent railway traffic and faster and heavier trains will,… (More)
The present paper explores the influence of the physical environmental qualities of "quiet". courtyards (degree of naturalness and utilization) on residents' noise responses. A questionnaire study was conducted in urban residential areas with road-traffic noise exposure between L(Aeq,24h) 58 to 68 dB at the most exposed façade. The dwellings had "quiet"… (More)
BACKGROUND Surveys are a common way to measure annoyance due to road traffic noise, but the method has some draw-backs. Survey context, question wording and answer alternatives could affect participation and answers and could have implications when comparing studies and/or performing pooled analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference… (More)
The views and analysis expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs.