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BACKGROUND Although interferon-free regimens are approved for patients co-infected with HIV and genotype-2 or genotype-3 hepatitis C virus (HCV), interferon-based regimens are still an option for those co-infected with HIV and HCV genotypes 1 or 4. These regimens are limited by clinically significant toxic effects and drug interactions with antiretroviral(More)
BACKGROUND The registrational phase III clinical trials of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) rilpivirine (RPV) in combination with two nucleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs) found a unique genotypic resistance pattern involving the NNRTI mutation E138K with the NRTI mutation M184I. Eighty percent of subjects used(More)
BACKGROUND Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) are the three components of the once-daily, single tablet regimen (Atripla) for treatment of HIV-1 infection. Previous cell culture studies have demonstrated that the double combination of tenofovir (TFV), the parent drug of TDF, and FTC were additive to synergistic in(More)
Drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) minority variants increase the risk of virologic failure for first-line nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens. We performed a pooled analysis to evaluate the relationship between NNRTI-resistant minority variants and the likelihood and types of resistance mutations(More)
Retroviral populations exhibit a high evolutionary potential, giving rise to extensive genetic variation. Error-prone DNA synthesis catalyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT) generates variation in retroviral populations. Structural features within RTs are likely to contribute to the high rate of errors that occur during reverse transcription. We sought to(More)
MOTIVATION G → A hypermutation is an innate antiviral defense mechanism, mediated by host enzymes, which leads to the mutational impairment of viruses. Sensitive and specific identification of host-mediated G → A hypermutation is a novel sequence analysis challenge, particularly for viral deep sequencing studies. For example, two of the most common(More)
The antiretroviral nucleoside analog 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) is a potent inhibitor of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). A methionine-to-valine or methionine-to-isoleucine substitution at residue 184 in the HIV-1 YMDD motif, which is located at the RT active site, leads to a high level of resistance(More)
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