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Heat causes protein misfolding and aggregation and, in eukaryotic cells, triggers aggregation of proteins and RNA into stress granules. We have carried out extensive proteomic studies to quantify heat-triggered aggregation and subsequent disaggregation in budding yeast, identifying >170 endogenous proteins aggregating within minutes of heat shock in(More)
Initiation of translation on picornavirus RNAs is accomplished through internal binding of ribosomes to a complex cis-acting element. Here we show that efficient function of this element involves two appropriately spaced smaller elements: UUUCC and an AUG. This conclusion emerged from analysis of the genome structures of spontaneous revertants of mutant(More)
On the basis of a comparative analysis of published sequences, models for the secondary structure of the 3'-terminal [poly(A)-preceding] untranslated region of the entero- and rhinovirus RNAs were worked out. The models for all these viruses share a common core element, but there are an extra enterovirus-specific element and still an additional element(More)
The critical role of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system in regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes is well established. In contrast, the impact of the ubiquitin-independent proteolytic activity of proteasomes is poorly understood. Through biochemical analysis of mammalian lysates, we find that the 20S proteasome, latent in peptide hydrolysis,(More)
An analysis of published nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 7 cardioviruses and 3 aphthoviruses has allowed us to derive a consensus secondary structure model that differs from that previously proposed for the 5'-UTR of entero- and rhinoviruses, though all these viruses belong to the same family, Picornaviridae. The theoretical(More)
The DA strain of Theiler's virus causes a persistent and demyelinating infection of the white matter of spinal cord, whereas the GDVII strain causes a fatal gray-matter encephalomyelitis. Studies with recombinant viruses showed that this difference in phenotype is controlled mainly by the capsid. However, conflicting results regarding the existence of(More)
In eukaryotic cells, diverse stresses trigger coalescence of RNA-binding proteins into stress granules. In vitro, stress-granule-associated proteins can demix to form liquids, hydrogels, and other assemblies lacking fixed stoichiometry. Observing these phenomena has generally required conditions far removed from physiological stresses. We show that(More)
Folding of RNA sequences into biologically functional secondary structures has been studied by diierent theoretical approaches since the early seventies. The most popular algorithm is based on thermodynamic assumptions of the folding procedure 9, 5, 2]. In addition algorithms based on the kinetics of folding were developed 4, 6]. All these algorithms(More)
Upon initiation of translation of picornavirus RNA, the ribosome is believed to bind the internal ribosome entry site of the template and then to form a productive complex with a downstream RNA segment, the starting window. The presence or absence of an AUG triplet within the starting window of the RNA of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (a(More)
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