Everett L. Smith

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This study tested the hypothesis that physical activity and/or supplemental calcium (0.75 g/day) and vitamin D (400 IU) would effectively slow bone loss, and /or increase bone mineral content (BMC) in aged females (X = 81) over three years. In vivo BMC and width of the radius was determined by photon absorptiometry at two sites. Four groups were formed: a(More)
Physical activity is an important stimulus in the prevention of bone involution. Bilateral bone mineral mass and width of the radius, ulna, and humerus were measured by single photon absorptiometry on 200 women between the ages of 35 and 65 over a 3–4 year period. Two groups were formed: 80 in a control group and 120 in a physical activity group exercising(More)
In a 4-yr clinical trial, effect on single-photon absorptiometric measurements of arm bones of usual intakes of energy and 14 nutrients plus vitamin-mineral supplements was studied in 99 women, aged 35-65, randomly assigned to placebo (NS) or calcium-supplemented (1.5 g)(S) groups. Cross-sectional analysis of initial bone measurements showed vitamin C (r =(More)
Electroretinographic studies of myctalopic Appaloosa horses demonstrated photopic and scotopic abnormalities similar to those in humans with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) of the Schubert-Bornschein type. The phototopic abnormalities consisted of reduced b-wave amplitudes and slower than normal b-wave implict time. The dark-adapted ERG's(More)
This 4-y study investigated the effects of a calcium carbonate supplement on bone loss in 169 women aged 35-65 y, randomly assigned to placebo and treatment (1500 mg Ca/d) groups in a double-blind design. Bone mineral content (BMC) and width (W) were measured bilaterally on the radius, ulna, and humerus. BMC and BMC/W loss rates were consistently lower in(More)
Forty-seven elderly women (63 to 88 years of age, mean = 71 years) were studied to determine the effect of a 25-week light resistance and aerobic exercise program upon arm and leg strength. Three groups were formed: nonexercising controls (C, n = 12), exercise (EN, n = 18) and exercise with light weights on on the wrists and ankles (EW, n = 17). Exercise(More)
Decreased range of motion (ROM) due to disuse limits the older adult's ability to perform daily activities. The flexibility of five joints of 46 women (aged 65 to 89 years) was measured by goniometer before and after a 25-week exercise program. Three groups were formed: a control group who did no exercise (C) (n = 13), a group who exercised with light(More)
A dose-response relationship between mechanical loading and bone can be inferred by the fact that bone response is proportional to the applied load in cell and organ culture and in animal models where a known load at a given magnitude and frequency is applied. Proportional responses have been observed in second messengers, growth factors, bone matrix, and(More)