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No therapeutics or vaccines currently exist for human coronaviruses (HCoVs). The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) epidemic in 2002-2003, and the recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in April 2012, emphasize the high probability of future zoonotic HCoV emergence causing severe and(More)
The paramyxovirus family contains established human pathogens such as the measles virus and human respiratory syncytial virus, as well as emerging pathogens including the Hendra and Nipah viruses and the recently identified human metapneumovirus. Two major envelope glycoproteins, the attachment protein and the fusion protein, promote the processes of viral(More)
Coronaviruses Contain the Largest Known RNA Genomes Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses and contain the largest known RNA genomes, ranging from 27 to 32 kilobases in length. CoVs are capable of trans-species movement as evidenced by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) epidemic in 2002–2003 [1,2].(More)
UNLABELLED Coronaviruses (CoVs) are unique in encoding a 3'→5' exoribonuclease within nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14-ExoN) that is required for high-fidelity replication, likely via proofreading. nsp14 associates with the CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12-RdRp), and nsp14-ExoN activity is enhanced by binding nsp10, a small nonenzymatic protein.(More)
The N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF) was one of the initial members of the ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities Plus (AAA(+)) family. In this review, we discuss what is known about the mechanism of NSF action and how that relates to the mechanisms of other AAA(+) proteins. Like other family members, NSF binds to a protein complex(More)
Triggering of the Hendra virus fusion (F) protein is required to initiate the conformational changes which drive membrane fusion, but the factors which control triggering remain poorly understood. Mutation of a histidine predicted to lie near the fusion peptide to alanine greatly reduced fusion despite wild-type cell surface expression levels, while(More)
Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote membrane fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membranes, a critical early step in viral infection. Although mutational analyses have indicated that transmembrane (TM) domain residues can affect folding or function of viral fusion proteins, direct analysis of TM-TM interactions has proved challenging. To(More)
While work with viral fusion proteins has demonstrated that the transmembrane domain (TMD) can affect protein folding, stability, and membrane fusion promotion, the mechanism(s) remains poorly understood. TMDs could play a role in fusion promotion through direct TMD-TMD interactions, and we have recently shown that isolated TMDs from three paramyxovirus(More)
Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein.(More)