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In two separate studies cocaine hydrochloride at doses between 10--36 mg/kg was found to induce a dose-related conditioned taste aversion (C.T.A.) to saccharin, and to be an effective conditioning agent even when injections of the drug were delayed 90 min after saccharin intake. These data contrast with conditioning agent when unjectuons of the drug were(More)
A scale to measure 'social withdrawal,' was developed specifically for use with MND patients. Scale design was based upon patient-focused interviews which were used to explore patients' concerns. The impact the condition had upon their social interactions with others was salient for all patients and affected their overall quality of life. Using issues(More)
Previous studies which have examined the effects of lesions of the habenula on active avoidance learning have not provided unambiguous support for response deficits. Moreover, interpretation of early studies is confounded by large lesions which damaged adjacent structures. We report the effects of smaller circumscribed lesions of the habenula complex on a(More)
Conditioned taste aversions (C.T.As) established in rats to 0.1% sodium saccharin by intra-peritoneal injections of DL-fenfluramine hydrochloride (6 mg per kg) or d-amphetamine sulphate (2.0 mg per ke) were found to be significantly attenuated, but not abolished altogether, by chronic pretreatment (over 9 days) with the specific drug. Prior treatment with(More)
BACKGROUND The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is commonly used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in motor neurone disease (MND). The measure has never been specifically validated for use within this population, despite questions raised about the scale's validity. This study seeks to analyse the construct validity of the HADS in MND(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this research was to develop a disease-specific measure for fatigue in patients with motor neurone disease (MND) by generating data that would fit the Rasch measurement model. Fatigue was defined as reversible motor weakness and whole-body tiredness that was predominantly brought on by muscular exertion and was partially relieved(More)
The effectiveness of a dose of 3.0 mg/kg methamphetamine in inducing a conditioned taste aversion to saccharin was found to be reduced by chronic pretreatment with the same dose of the drug. The degree of attenuation of the aversive properties of the drug was found to be directly proportional to the duration of pretreatment, a pretreatment regime of 9 or(More)
OBJECTIVES To document mood, self-efficacy, and resiliency in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) following a brief group psychological intervention, and to examine whether benefits were greater than those derived from provision of education or group social interaction. DESIGN A randomized controlled intervention trial assessing outcomes at five time(More)
Male Lister rats with bilateral lesions of the habenula nuclei were observed during two consecutive phases of a swim test. During the first phase of the test, when escape was not possible, lesioned animals demonstrated fewer changes of behaviour. Lesioned animals failed to utilise an introduced external cue and escape route in the second part of the test.(More)
Although the habenula occupies a potentially important link between forebrain and midbrain, lesion of the complex produces little effect in most standard behavioral paradigms. More recently, it has been shown that such lesions may impair the ability to initiate or switch responses appropriate to environmental contingencies but only under demanding(More)