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As we age, there is an increased risk for the development of pulmonary diseases, including infections, but few studies have considered changes in lung surfactant and components of the innate immune system as contributing factors to the increased susceptibility of the elderly to succumb to infections. We and others have demonstrated that human alveolar(More)
Searching for virulence marking tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Dubos and Middlebrook reported in 1948 that in an alkaline aqueous solution of neutral-red, the cells of the virulent H37Rv M. tuberculosis strain fixed the dye and became red in color, whereas the cells of the avirulent H37Ra M. tuberculosis strain remained unstained. In the 1950 and(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely human adapted and a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages (AMs) being the primary conduit of infection and disease. The outcome of(More)
Granulomas are the hallmark of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection and thus sit at the center of tuberculosis (TB) immunopathogenesis. TB can result from either early progression of a primary granuloma during the infection process or reactivation of an established granuloma in a latently infected person. Granulomas are compact, organized aggregates(More)
Low dose aerosol infection of C57BL/6 mice with a clinical strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (UTE 0335 R) induced intragranulomatous necrosis in pulmonary granulomas (INPG) at week 9 postinfection. Infection of different knockout (KO) mouse strains with UTE 0335 R induced INPG in all strains and established two histopathological patterns. The first(More)
Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is an intracellular bacterium of human alveolar macrophages that causes Legionnaires' disease. In contrast to humans, most inbred mouse strains are restrictive to L. pneumophila replication. We demonstrate that autophagy targets L. pneumophila vacuoles to lysosomes and that this process requires ubiquitination of L.(More)
It is generally accepted that cellular, and not humoral immunity, plays the crucial role in defense against intracellular bacteria. However, accumulating data indicate the importance of humoral immunity for the defense against a number of intracellular bacteria, including mycobacteria. We have investigated the role of secretory IgA, the main isotype found(More)
We investigated the protective role of immune-sera against reactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in SCID mice and found that passive immunization with sera obtained from mice treated with detoxified M. tuberculosis extracts (delivered in liposomes in a composition known as RUTI) exerted significant protection. Our SCID mouse model consisted(More)
Reduction of colony forming units by rifampicin-isoniazid therapy given 9-17 weeks post-infection was made more pronounced by immunotherapy with a vaccine made of fragmented Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells detoxified and liposomed (RUTI), given on weeks 17, 19 and 21 post-infection, in the murine model of tuberculosis in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 inbred strains.(More)
Intragranulomatous necrosis is a primary feature in the natural history of human tuberculosis (TB). Unfortunately, this phenomenon is not usually seen in the experimental TB murine model. Artificial induction of this necrosis in pulmonary granulomas (INPG) may be achieved through aerosol inoculation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 3 weeks after Mycobacterium(More)