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Osteoprotegerin-ligand (OPGL) is a key osteoclast differentiation/activation factor essential for bone remodeling. We report that mice lacking OPGL or its receptor RANK fail to form lobulo-alveolar mammary structures during pregnancy, resulting in death of newborns. Transplantation and OPGL-rescue experiments in opgl-/- and rank-/- pregnant females showed(More)
Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) play a critical role in glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs). CXCR4 is involved in angiogenesis and is upregulated by HIF-1alpha. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor for stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)alpha, also known as CXCL12. We hypothesized that CXCR4 would be upregulated by hypoxia in GBMs. First, we(More)
BACKGROUND Many differentiating tissues contain progenitor cells that differ in their commitment states but cannot be readily distinguished or segregated. Molecular analysis is therefore restricted to mixed populations or cell lines which may also be heterogeneous, and the critical differences in gene expression that might determine divergent development(More)
Metastasis is an impediment to the development of effective cancer therapies. Our understanding of metastasis is limited by our inability to follow this process in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy offers the potential to follow cells at high resolution in living animals. Semiconductor nanocrystals, quantum dots (QDs), offer considerable advantages over organic(More)
To test if proteolysis is involved in tumor cell extravasation, we developed an in vitro model where tumor cells cross an endothelial monolayer cultured on a basement membrane. Using this model we classified the ability of the cells to transmigrate through the endothelial cell barrier onto the underlying matrix, and scored this invasion according to the(More)
The stimulant effect of energy drinks is primarily attributed to the caffeine they contain. Many energy drinks also contain other ingredients that might enhance the tonic effects of these caffeinated beverages. One of these additives is guarana. Guarana is a climbing plant native to the Amazon whose seeds contain approximately four times the amount of(More)
Bioassays of planarian neoplasia highlight the potential of these organisms as useful standards to assess whether environmental toxins such as cadmium promote tumorigenesis. These studies complement other investigations into the exceptional healing and regeneration of planarians - processes that are driven by a population of active stem cells, or neoblasts,(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the relative gain in sensitivity of five histology coils designed in-house to accommodate tissue sections of various sizes and compare with commercial mouse head coils. METHODS The coil set was tailored to house tissue sections ranging from 5 to1000 µm encased in either glass slides or coverslips. RESULTS Our simulations and(More)
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