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Adaptive goal-directed behavior involves monitoring of ongoing actions and performance outcomes, and subsequent adjustments of behavior and learning. We evaluate new findings in cognitive neuroscience concerning cortical interactions that subserve the recruitment and implementation of such cognitive control. A review of primate and human studies, along with(More)
The relation between brain development across adolescence and adolescent risky behavior has attracted increasing interest in recent years. It has been proposed that adolescents are hypersensitive to reward because of an imbalance in the developmental pattern followed by the striatum and prefrontal cortex. To date, it is unclear if adolescents engage in(More)
Research has demonstrated that extensive structural and functional brain development continues throughout adolescence. A popular notion emerging from this work states that a relative immaturity in frontal cortical neural systems could explain adolescents' high rates of risk-taking, substance use and other dangerous behaviours. However, developmental(More)
Recent models hypothesize that adolescents' risky behavior is the consequence of increased sensitivity to rewards in the ventral medial (VM) prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the ventral striatum (VS), paired with immature cognitive control abilities due to slow maturation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lateral PFC. We tested this hypothesis(More)
Two different attentional networks have been associated with visuospatial attention and conflict resolution. In most situations either one of the two networks is active or both are increased in activity together. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a flanker task, we show conditions in which one network (anterior attention system) is(More)
The ability to retrieve and flexibly switch between task rules is seen as an important component of cognitive control. It is often assumed that lateral prefrontal cortex (latPFC) is important for switching between rules. However, activation associated with rule-switching is less reliably observed in latPFC than in medial PFC (specifically, pre-supplementary(More)
Puberty is an important period during development hallmarked by increases in sex steroid levels. Human neuroimaging studies have consistently reported that in typically developing pubertal children, cortical and subcortical gray matter is decreasing, whereas white matter increases well into adulthood. From animal studies it has become clear that sex(More)
Patients with bilateral lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, when performing gambling tasks modeling real-life decision-making, opt for choices that yield high immediate gains in spite of higher future losses. Under the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex is the last brain region to mature, it was examined whether young children would show a(More)
The current study examined the pattern of heart rate and skin conductance changes preceding risky choices and following outcome for bad, moderate, and good performers on an analogue of the Iowa gambling task (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994). The task required a choice between four options; two options were followed by a high reward and,(More)
The ability to manipulate information in working memory is a key factor in cognitive development. Here, we used event-related functional MRI to test the hypothesis that developmental improvements in manipulation, relative to pure maintenance, are associated with increased recruitment of dorsolateral (DL) prefrontal cortex (PFC) and superior parietal cortex.(More)