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Adaptive goal-directed behavior involves monitoring of ongoing actions and performance outcomes, and subsequent adjustments of behavior and learning. We evaluate new findings in cognitive neuroscience concerning cortical interactions that subserve the recruitment and implementation of such cognitive control. A review of primate and human studies, along with(More)
The ability to retrieve and flexibly switch between task rules is seen as an important component of cognitive control. It is often assumed that lateral prefrontal cortex (latPFC) is important for switching between rules. However, activation associated with rule-switching is less reliably observed in latPFC than in medial PFC (specifically, pre-supplementary(More)
The relation between brain development across adolescence and adolescent risky behavior has attracted increasing interest in recent years. It has been proposed that adolescents are hypersensitive to reward because of an imbalance in the developmental pattern followed by the striatum and prefrontal cortex. To date, it is unclear if adolescents engage in(More)
Recent models hypothesize that adolescents' risky behavior is the consequence of increased sensitivity to rewards in the ventral medial (VM) prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the ventral striatum (VS), paired with immature cognitive control abilities due to slow maturation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lateral PFC. We tested this hypothesis(More)
Research has demonstrated that extensive structural and functional brain development continues throughout adolescence. A popular notion emerging from this work states that a relative immaturity in frontal cortical neural systems could explain adolescents' high rates of risk-taking, substance use and other dangerous behaviours. However, developmental(More)
The current study examined the pattern of heart rate and skin conductance changes preceding risky choices and following outcome for bad, moderate, and good performers on an analogue of the Iowa gambling task (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994). The task required a choice between four options; two options were followed by a high reward and,(More)
In the standard Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), participants have to choose repeatedly from four options. Each option is characterized by a constant gain, and by the frequency and amount of a probabilistic loss. Crone and van der Molen (2004) reported that school-aged children and even adolescents show marked deficits in IGT performance. In this study, we have(More)
The ability to manipulate information in working memory is a key factor in cognitive development. Here, we used event-related functional MRI to test the hypothesis that developmental improvements in manipulation, relative to pure maintenance, are associated with increased recruitment of dorsolateral (DL) prefrontal cortex (PFC) and superior parietal cortex.(More)
During development, children improve at retrieving and using rules to guide their behavior and at flexibly switching between these rules. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the changes in brain function associated with developmental changes in flexible rule use. Three age groups (8-12, 13-17, and 18-25 years) performed a(More)
Human behavior is often dictated by rules or prescribed guides for action. Little is currently known regarding how these rules are stored in long-term memory or retrieved and implemented. Here, we examined the roles of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (postMTG) in rule use. We tested two hypotheses: first, that(More)