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Three subtypes of vesicular transporters accumulate glutamate into synaptic vesicles to promote its vesicular release. One of the subtypes, VGLUT3, is expressed in neurons, including cholinergic striatal interneurons, that are known to release other classical transmitters. Here we showed that disruption of the Slc17a8 gene (also known as Vglut3) caused an(More)
Three different subtypes of H(+)-dependent carriers (named VGLUT1-3) concentrate glutamate into synaptic vesicles before its exocytotic release. Neurons using other neurotransmitter than glutamate (such as cholinergic striatal interneurons and 5-HT neurons) express VGLUT3. It was recently reported that VGLUT3 increases acetylcholine vesicular filling,(More)
Two principal component analyses of anxiety were undertaken investigating two strains of mice (ABP/Le and C57BL/6ByJ) in two different experiments, both classical tests for assessing anxiety in rodents. The elevated plus-maze and staircase were used for the first experiment, and a free exploratory paradigm and light-dark discrimination were used for the(More)
The study in an ethological perspective of inbred strains of mice offers a more accurate description of anxiety-related behavior. In this context, behavioral performances of the BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J strains were systematically compared in the staircase test, the light/dark test and the elevated plus maze test. A rarely used variable, the latency of the(More)
A relation between anxiety disorders and balance control dysfunctions has been observed in many studies in humans. A mismatch in the integration of sensory inputs could trigger these disturbances. Very few experimental animal procedures have been designed to study the functional link between anxiety and balance control. A task was therefore developed,(More)
Anxiety disorders and balance disorders share common clinical features related to perception such as spatial disorientation or dizziness. The search for the mechanism underlying this core of symptoms led us to investigate impairments in multisensory integration. In mice, the 'rotating beam test' allows analysis of changes in balance control and posture in(More)
A task requiring dynamic postural stabilisation during locomotion in a conflicting visual vestibular environment (rotating beam), has been devised to assess anxiety-related balance impairments and postural changes in mice. The model, already validated with acutely administered diazepam, was used to assess the action of two chronically administered selective(More)
We analysed spatial and temporal characteristics of mouse locomotion and investigated whether mouse gait differed between strains and environments. To this end, we used two inbred strains of mice (BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J) known for their contrasting inherent level of anxiety, in three different visual surroundings. The animal position was determined relative(More)
CaMKIINalpha and CaMKIINbeta are endogenous inhibitors of the abundant synaptic protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). CaMKII exerts a prominent function in memory formation and the endogenous inhibitors might be important regulators of CaMKII activity during this process. Here we investigated whether or not CaMKIINalpha and(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that the glutamatergic system is severely impaired in Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we assessed the status of glutamatergic terminals in AD using the first available specific markers, the vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. We quantified VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex (Brodmann area(More)