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Three subtypes of vesicular transporters accumulate glutamate into synaptic vesicles to promote its vesicular release. One of the subtypes, VGLUT3, is expressed in neurons, including cholinergic striatal interneurons, that are known to release other classical transmitters. Here we showed that disruption of the Slc17a8 gene (also known as Vglut3) caused an(More)
Three different subtypes of H(+)-dependent carriers (named VGLUT1-3) concentrate glutamate into synaptic vesicles before its exocytotic release. Neurons using other neurotransmitter than glutamate (such as cholinergic striatal interneurons and 5-HT neurons) express VGLUT3. It was recently reported that VGLUT3 increases acetylcholine vesicular filling,(More)
CaMKIINalpha and CaMKIINbeta are endogenous inhibitors of the abundant synaptic protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). CaMKII exerts a prominent function in memory formation and the endogenous inhibitors might be important regulators of CaMKII activity during this process. Here we investigated whether or not CaMKIINalpha and(More)
Gene transcription is required for long-term memory (LTM) formation. LTM formation is impaired in a male-specific manner in mice lacking either of the two Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (Camkk) genes. Since altered transcription was suggested to cause these impairments in LTM formation, we used microarrays to screen for CaMKKbeta-dependent gene(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that the glutamatergic system is severely impaired in Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we assessed the status of glutamatergic terminals in AD using the first available specific markers, the vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. We quantified VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex (Brodmann area(More)
Neonates respond to hypoxia initially by increasing ventilation, and then by markedly decreasing both ventilation (hypoxic ventilatory decline) and oxygen consumption (hypoxic hypometabolism). This latter process, which vanishes with age, reflects a tight coupling between ventilatory and thermogenic responses to hypoxia. The neurological substrate of(More)
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