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The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of cannabis, was explored in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was elicited by immunizing DBA/1 mice with type II collagen (CII) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The CII used was either bovine or murine, resulting in classical acute CIA or in chronic relapsing CIA,(More)
Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation has been observed in human atherosclerotic plaques and is enhanced in unstable coronary plaques, but whether such activation has a protective or pathophysiological role remains to be determined. We addressed this question by developing a short-term culture system of cells isolated from human atherosclerotic(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB is a pivotal intracellular regulator of many inflammatory responses and it has been proposed that it represents a potential therapeutic target. As chemokines are important for the progress of an inflammatory response by the recruitment of immuno-competent cells, the role NF-kappaB plays in TNFalpha- or lipopolysaccharides(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most endothelial cell-specific angiogenic factor characterised to date, and it is produced by a variety of cell types. In macrophages, VEGF has been shown to be upregulated by the inflammatory mediator lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and by engagement of CD40 by CD40 ligand (CD40L). Because LPS and CD40L activate(More)
The increasing understanding of the role of cytokines in autoimmunity, and the observation that tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is central to the inflammatory and destructive process common to several human autoimmune diseases, has led to a new generation of therapeutics, the TNFalpha blocking agents. In this article, we review the current knowledge(More)
The study of the role cytokines play in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has provided a whole new range of targets for drug development. Many of them (e.g. TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-15 and IL-18) are already being targeted in the clinic with success using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies or soluble cytokine receptors. Targeting TNF, in particular,(More)
RATIONALE Activin-A is up-regulated in various respiratory disorders. However, its precise role in pulmonary pathophysiology has not been adequately substantiated in vivo. OBJECTIVES To investigate in vivo the consequences of dysregulated Activin-A expression in the lung and identify key Activin-A-induced processes that contribute to respiratory(More)
  • E Andreakos
  • 2004
Over the last decade it has become apparent that common pathogenic mechanisms are shared between many human chronic inflammatory diseases of unrelated pathology and manifestation. These mechanisms include common inflammatory networks that control tissue destructive and repair processes and their study is of major therapeutic potential as recently(More)
In the last decade, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of regulation of the inflammatory process in chronic inflammatory diseases has moved remarkably forward. Recent evidence in various fields has consistently indicated that T-cells play a key role in initiating and perpetuating inflammation, not only via the production of soluble mediators but(More)
The "Holy Grail" of in vitro toxicology is to develop assay systems that mimic the in vivo situation and hence reduce the need for toxicity tests employing experimental animals. However a major problem to be overcome with cell culture models is the rapid loss of differentiated phenotype that markedly limits extrapolation of results to the whole animal (i.e.(More)