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Despite the common use of MDMA (ecstasy) in the UK, the mechanism underlying associated potentially fatal cerebral oedema is unclear. We used a new experimental approach working directly with clubbers to perform a study on 30 (17 male) experienced clubbers (mean 6.6 years of clubbing). Pre- and post-clubbing measurements were performed to compare plasma(More)
BACKGROUND The safety of antidepressants in children and adolescents is being questioned and the efficacy of these drugs in juvenile depression remains uncertain. AIMS To assess antidepressant efficacy in juvenile depression. METHOD Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing responses to antidepressants, overall(More)
In this study we investigate the association of cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT, Val158Met) and serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) genotypes on change in cortisol concentration following 3, 4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') consumption. Forty-eight subjects (30 males, mean age 23 years),(More)
Working memory is regulated by neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex (PFC), including dopamine and norepinephrine. Previous studies of dopamine function in working memory have focused on the D1 and D2 receptors, with most evidence suggesting a dominant role for the D1 receptor. Since the dopamine D4 receptor is highly expressed in PFC, we hypothesize that(More)
Overwhelming research evidence suggests that the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (NSS) contribute more to impaired quality of life and poor functioning than positive symptoms, and that NSS, including affective flattening, alogia and avolition are present in at least one-fifth of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Despite this, management of NSS(More)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a widely used group of antidepressants (ADs) with reported potential detrimental effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Here, a comprehensive review of the in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies to date was carried out using the medical search engines MEDLINE (1950 to September(More)
INTRODUCTION In patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, antipsychotics are the mainstay of treatment worldwide. By blocking D(2) brain mesolimbic receptors, antipsychotics are believed to reduce and control psychotic experiences, but recent evidence has suggested that they may also have adverse effects on bone mineral architecture and(More)
OBJECTIVE The effect of minor orthopaedic day surgery (MiODS) on patient's mood. METHODS A prospective population-based cohort study of 148 consecutive patients with age above 18 and less than 65, an American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA) score of 1, and the requirement of general anaesthesia (GA) were included. The Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an association between tardive dyskinesia (TD) and number of functional CYP2D6 genes. METHODS A Caucasian sample of 70 patients was recruited in 1996-1997 from South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, UK. Subjects had a DSM-IIIR diagnosis of schizophrenia(More)
We hypothesised that genetically determined poor metabolism of 3,4-methylene dioxymetamphetamine (MDMA) due either to the presence of CYP2D6 genotypes giving absent or low CYP2D6 enzyme activity, or a COMT genotype predicting low COMT enzyme activity would be associated with a greater degree of MDMA-induced reduction in plasma sodium and osmolality than(More)