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The transport of lactose by Escherichia coli cells was radically different in the absence and in the presence of an exogenous energy source: in the former case, the time course of lactose accumulation was monotonous; in the latter case, lactose accumulation reached a maximum and then decreased to a final steady-state level lower than that observed in the(More)
We propose a new method for assembly of 3D microstructures. Hard magnets are arranged in a novel 120deg offset configuration, allowing for in-situ magnetization. The new configuration makes the use of hard magnets feasible in batch fabrication, and hard magnets allow for the use of a uniform external field for application of magnetic torque. A sequential(More)
We introduce a method of motion control for bacterial microrobots using oxygen gradients. The bacteria (magnetotactic coccus strain MC-1) have a strong preference for a particular oxygen concentration and reverse swimming direction in order to remain at that oxygen concentration. At the same time, MC-1 consume oxygen, changing the dynamics of the system. We(More)
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