Evan R. L. Baldwin

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Electrical stimulation (1-ms pulses, 100 Hz) produces more torque than expected from motor axon activation (extra contractions). This experiment investigates the most effective method of delivering this stimulation for neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Surface stimulation (1-ms pulses; 20 Hz for 2 s, 100 Hz for 2 s, 20 Hz for 3 s) was delivered to(More)
Tetanic neuromuscular stimulation evokes contractions by depolarizing motor axons beneath the stimulating electrodes. However, we have shown that extra torque can develop due to the discharge of spinal neurons recruited by the evoked sensory volley. The present experiments investigated whether extra torque in the ankle plantar- and dorsiflexors was(More)
Humans perform rhythmic, locomotor movements with the arms and legs every day. Studies using reflexes to probe the functional role of the CNS suggest that spinal circuits are an important part of the neural control system for rhythmic arm cycling and walking. Here, by studying motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation(More)
PURPOSE Damage to the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) can result in denervation of the trapezius muscle in patients undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Trapezius denervation leads to muscle weakness and dysfunction that, for some patients, persists despite the return of conduction along the SAN. This prospective case series describes an intervention(More)
Tetanic neuromuscular stimulation evokes contractions by depolarizing motor axons beneath the stimulating electrodes. However, we have shown that extra torque can develop due to the discharge of spinal neurons recruited by the evoked sensory volley. The present experiments investigated whether extra torque in the ankle plantarand dorsiflexors was associated(More)
In humans, the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles act as antagonists during wrist flexion-extension and as functional synergists during radial deviation. In contrast to the situation in most antagonist muscle pairs, Renshaw cells innervated by the motor neurons of each muscle inhibit the motoneurons, but not Ia inhibitory(More)
Humans perform rhythmic, locomotor movements with the arms and legs every day. Studies using reflexes to probe the functional role of the CNS suggest that spinal circuits are an important part of the neural control system for rhythmic arm cycling and walking. Here, by studying motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation(More)
Changes in the reflex amplitude throughout the day have been observed in non-human mammals. The present experiment tested whether diurnal fluctuations also occur in humans. Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) amplitude was measured in soleus and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles from the data collected over a 12-h period between 7:00–9:00 a.m. and 7:00–9:00 p.m.(More)
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