Evan R. Kantrowitz

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A high resolution crystal structure of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase in the presence of vanadate has been refined to 1.9 A resolution. The vanadate ion takes on a trigonal bipyramidal geometry and is covalently bound by the active site serine nucleophile. A coordinated water molecule occupies the axial position opposite the serine nucleophile,(More)
Here, X-ray crystallography has been used to investigate the proposed double in-line displacement mechanism of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase in which two of the three active-site metal ions have a direct role in catalysis. Two new X-ray crystal structures of the wild-type enzyme in the absence and presence of inorganic phosphate have been refined at(More)
Using a mutant version of E. coli alkaline phosphatase, we succeeded in trapping and determining the structure of the phospho-enzyme intermediate. The X-ray structure also revealed the catalytic water molecule, bound to one of the active site zinc ions, positioned ideally for the apical attack necessary for the hydrolysis of the intermediate.
The replacement of aspartic acid by histidine at position 153 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase results in a mutant enzyme that is remarkably similar to certain mammalian alkaline phosphatases that are activated by magnesium in a time-dependent fashion. These mammalian alkaline phosphatases have histidine at the position corresponding to 153 of the(More)
The x-ray structures of the allosteric enzyme aspartate transcarbamylase from Escherichia coli have been solved and refined for both allosteric forms. The T form was determined in the presence of the heterotropic inhibitor cytidine triphosphate, CTP, while the R form was determined in the presence of the bisubstrate analog N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate.(More)
Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase exhibits maximal activity when Zn(2+) fills the M1 and M2 metal sites and Mg(2+) fills the M3 metal site. When other metals replace the zinc and magnesium, the catalytic efficiency is reduced by more than 5000-fold. Alkaline phosphatases from organisms such as Thermotoga maritima and Bacillus subtilis require cobalt for(More)
A strain of Escherichia coli has been constructed which greatly overproduces the enzyme aspartate transcarbamylase. This strain has a deletion in the pyrB region of the chromosome and also carries a leaky mutation in pyrF. Although this strain is a pyrimidine auxotroph, it will grow very slowly without pyrimidines if a plasmid containing the pyrB gene is(More)
One of the best-studied examples of a class A beta-lactamase is Escherichia coli TEM-1 beta-lactamase. In this class of enzymes, the active-site serine residue takes on the role of a nucleophile and carries out beta-lactam hydrolysis. Here, the structures of the wild-type and the S70G enzyme determined to 1.55 and 2.1 A, respectively, are presented. In(More)
In order to understand some of the differences between human placental, human, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatases in specific activity, activation by magnesium, and pH versus activity profiles, the X-ray crystal structures of three mutant E. coli alkaline phosphatases have been determined. The aligned sequences of alkaline(More)
Site-specific mutagenesis was used to explore the roles of the side chains of residues Lys-328 and Asp-153 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. The D153H enzyme exhibits a 3.5-fold decrease in activity at pH 8.0 compared to that of the wild-type enzyme, while a double mutant D153H/K328H exhibits a 16-fold decrease in activity under these conditions.(More)