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Understanding energy and material fluxes through ecosystems is central to many questions in global change biology and ecology. Ecosystem respiration is a critical component of the carbon cycle and might be important in regulating biosphere response to global climate change. Here we derive a general model of ecosystem respiration based on the kinetics of(More)
Evolution by natural selection is fundamentally shaped by the fitness landscapes in which it occurs. Yet fitness landscapes are vast and complex, and thus we know relatively little about the long-range constraints they impose on evolutionary dynamics. Here, we exhaustively survey the structural landscapes of RNA molecules of lengths 12 to 18 nucleotides,(More)
Adaptive radiations are of particular interest owing to what they reveal about the ecological and evolutionary regulation of biodiversity. This applies to localized island radiations such as Darwin's finches, and also to rapid radiations occurring on a global scale. Here we analyse the macroevolution and macroecology of Pheidole, a famously hyperdiverse and(More)
The Fijian islands, a remote archipelago in the southwestern Pacific, are home to a number of spectacular endemic radiations of plants and animals. Unlike most Pacific archipelagos, these evolutionary radiations extend to social insects, including ants. One of the most dramatic examples of ant radiation in Fiji has occurred in the hyperdiverse genus(More)
The ant genus Pheidole-for all of its hyperdiversity and global ubiquity-is remarkably conservative with regard to morphological disparity. A striking exception to this constrained morphology is the spinescent morphotype, which has evolved multiple times across distantly related lineages of Indoaustralian Pheidole. The Pheidole cervicornis group contains(More)
The Fiji archipelago harbours a surprisingly diverse and endemic ant fauna, despite its isolated and remote location in the South Pacific. The ant genus Proceratium is present on Fiji with three endemic species, of which Proceratiumoceanicum De Andrade, 2003 and Proceratiumrelictum Mann, 1921 were previously known. In this study we describe the third(More)
The objective of this study is to provide a detailed taxonomic resource for identifying and studying ants in the genus Pheidole that have established beyond their native ranges. There is an increasing need for systematists to study taxa of specific concern to 21(st) century environmental, food security and public health challenges. Systematics has an(More)
Pristomyrmex tsujii sp. n., an endemic species of the Fiji islands, is described from the worker, ergatoid queen, alate queen and male castes. The alate queen and male castes of Pristomyrmex mandibularis Mann are also described for the first time. The ergatoid queens for both species appear to be morphologically intermediate between the worker and alate(More)
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