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The distributions of dystrophin, 'dystrophin-related protein' (DRP) and beta-spectrin were compared with that of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at rat nerve-muscle junctions (NMJs) using immunofluorescence techniques. In sections, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to dystrophin and beta-spectrin labelled the entire sarcolemma but were concentrated at the NMJs(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-granule cell synapses is decreased in aged rats, stressed rats, and rats injected intracerebroventricularly with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). One factor that is common to these experimental conditions is an increase in the concentration of IL-1beta in the dentate gyrus, suggesting(More)
The age-related impairment in long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus is coupled with an increase in the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). It is possible that this increase in IL-1beta might be a consequence of the age-related increase in reactive oxygen species production in hippocampal tissue. In this study we set out to(More)
The value of analysing dystrophin on Western blots of skeletal muscle for the differential diagnosis of Xp21 muscular dystrophies is now fairly well established. Here we describe a sensitive system based on monoclonal antibodies to dystrophin. The specificity of the antibodies was established and experiments were undertaken to identify the source of(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in both area CA1 and the dentate gyrus is attenuated by stress and the evidence is consistent with the view that this is a consequence of increased activation of glucocorticoid receptors, in the hippocampus, following the stress-induced increase in circulating corticosterone. It has been shown that expression of the(More)
Evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species in brain may play a role in the development of age-related neuronal impairments, and that the increase in the concentration of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), in aged brain tissue, may also be a contributory factor. In this study, we have analyzed changes in enzymatic and(More)
PURPOSE Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a molecule expressed on antigen-presenting cells that engages the PD-1 receptor on T cells and inhibits T-cell receptor signaling. The PD-1 axis can be exploited by tumor cells to dampen host antitumor immune responses and foster tumor cell survival. PD-1 blockade has shown promise in multiple malignancies(More)
Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections appeared(More)
Previously we have shown low levels of dystrophin immunoreactivity in muscle from patients with DMD. According to the "frame-shift hypothesis" DMD muscle should not synthesize any dystrophin through to the C-terminus and it has been suggested that the protein detected is not dystrophin, but a related autosomal homologue. We have labelled serial sections of(More)
PURPOSE Patients with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)-rearranged B-lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALL) have an unfavorable prognosis and require intensified treatment. Multiple MLL fusion partners have been identified, complicating the diagnostic evaluation of MLL rearrangements. We analyzed molecular markers of MLL rearrangement for use in rapid diagnostic assays(More)