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To understand the role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) in intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation and neuronal function, we took advantage of natural knockout mice lacking NHE1, the most ubiquitously and densely expressed NHE isoform in the central nervous system (CNS). CA1 neurons from both wild-type (WT) and NHE1 mutant mice were studied by continuous(More)
Neurons in the central nervous system regulate their intracellular pH using particular membrane proteins of which two, namely the Na+-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and the Na+/H+ exchanger, are essential. In this study we examined messenger RNA expression and distribution of Na+/H+ exchanger in the newborn rat central nervous system and with maturation(More)
O2 deprivation can produce many devastating clinical conditions such as myocardial infarct and stroke. The molecular mechanisms underlying the inherent tissue susceptibility or tolerance to O2 lack are, however, not well defined. Since the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is extraordinarily tolerant to O2 deprivation, we have performed a genetic screen(More)
Autophagy is an important cellular process that controls cells in a normal homeostatic state by recycling nutrients to maintain cellular energy levels for cell survival via the turnover of proteins and damaged organelles. However, persistent activation of autophagy can lead to excessive depletion of cellular organelles and essential proteins, leading to(More)
The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a heterodimer composed of alpha and beta subunits, plays an important role in the cellular response to O(2) deprivation. In this paper, Drosophila HIF-1beta (dHIF-1beta) homolog is cloned and characterized. Further, Northern analyses showed that dHIF-1alpha and dHIF-1beta expressed their highest level at an embryonic(More)
Unlike the well-defined long-range order that characterizes crystalline metals, the atomic arrangements in amorphous alloys remain mysterious at present. Despite intense research activity on metallic glasses and relentless pursuit of their structural description, the details of how the atoms are packed in amorphous metals are generally far less understood(More)
We took advantage of the Drosophila melanogaster's extraordinary resistance to anoxia to study the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. We analyzed mRNA expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) (HSP26 and HSP70), ubiquitins (UB) (UB3 and UB4), cytochrome oxidase I (COXI) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) using slot blot analysis. The expression of(More)
Glasses are usually shaped through the viscous flow of a liquid before its solidification, as practiced in glass blowing. At or near room temperature (RT), oxide glasses are known to be brittle and fracture upon any mechanical deformation for shape change. Here, we show that with moderate exposure to a low-intensity (<1.8×10(-2) A cm(-2)) electron beam(More)
A metal, or an alloy, can often exist in more than one crystal structure. The face-centred-cubic and body-centred-cubic forms of iron (or steel) are a familiar example of such polymorphism. When metallic materials are made in the amorphous form, is a parallel 'polyamorphism' possible? So far, polyamorphic phase transitions in the glassy state have been(More)
The ideal elastic limit is the upper bound to the stress and elastic strain a material can withstand. This intrinsic property has been widely studied for crystalline metals, both theoretically and experimentally. For metallic glasses, however, the ideal elastic limit remains poorly characterized and understood. Here we show that the elastic strain limit and(More)