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Climate change predictions derived from coupled carbon-climate models are highly dependent on assumptions about feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere. One critical feedback occurs if C uptake by the biosphere increases in response to the fossil-fuel driven increase in atmospheric [CO(2)] ("CO(2) fertilization"), thereby slowing the rate of increase(More)
Increases in tree biomass may be an important sink for CO 2 as the atmospheric concentration continues to increase. Tree growth in temperate forests is often limited by the availability of soil nutrients. To assess whether soil nutrient limitation will constrain forest productivity under high atmospheric CO 2 , we studied the changes in forest litter(More)
The idea that the concentration of secondary metabolites in plant tissues is controlled by the availability of carbon and nitrogen in the environment has been termed the carbon±nutrient balance hypothesis (CNB). This hypothesis has been invoked both for prediction and for post hoc explanation of the results of hundreds of studies. Although it successfully(More)
[1] In two parallel but independent experiments, Free Air CO 2 Enrichment (FACE) technology was used to expose plots within contrasting evergreen loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and deciduous sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) forests to the level of CO 2 anticipated in 2050. Net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) increased in(More)
Increased concentrations of CO 2 and ozone are predicted to lower nutritional quality of leaves for insect herbivores, which may increase herbivory as insects eat more to meet their nutritional demands. To test this prediction, we measured levels of herbivory in soybean grown in ambient air and air enriched with CO 2 or O 3 using free air gas concentration(More)
[1] A sound understanding of the sustainability of terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration is critical for the success of any policies geared toward stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse concentrations. This includes the Kyoto Protocol and/or other greenhouse strategies implemented by individual countries. However, the sustainability of C sinks and pools has not(More)
Averaged across many previous investigations, doubling the CO2 concentration ([CO2]) has frequently been reported to cause an instantaneous reduction of leaf dark respiration measured as CO2 efflux. No known mechanism accounts for this effect, and four recent studies have shown that the measurement of respiratory CO2 efflux is prone to experimental(More)
Arthropods and pathogens damage leaves in natural ecosystems and may reduce photosynthesis at some distance away from directly injured tissue. We quantified the indirect effects of naturally occurring biotic damage on leaf-level photosystem II operating efficiency (Phi(PSII)) of 11 understory hardwood tree species using chlorophyll fluorescence and thermal(More)
The effect of different feeding behaviours of 1st and 4th instar Trichoplusia ni on photosynthesis of Arabidopsis thaliana var. Columbia was characterized using spatially resolved measurements of fluorescence and leaf temperature, as well as leaf gas exchange,. First instars made small holes with a large perimeter-to-area ratio and avoided veins, while 4th(More)
Changes in leaf-area index (LAI) may alter ecosystem productivity in elevated [CO2] or [O3]. By increasing the apparent quantum yield of photosynthesis (phi(c,max)), elevated [CO2] may increase maximum LAI. However, [O3] when elevated independently accelerates senescence and may reduce LAI. Large plots (20 m diameter) of soybean (Glycine max) were exposed(More)