• Publications
  • Influence
Why We Follow: An Examination of Parasocial Interaction and Fan Motivations for Following Athlete Archetypes on Twitter
An Internet-based survey was posted on the Twitter feeds and Facebook pages of 1 predominantly social and 1 predominantly parasocial athlete to ascertain the similarities and differences betweenExpand
#WorldSeries: An Empirical Examination of a Twitter Hashtag During a Major Sporting Event
Sport organizations, teams, and athletes are growing constituencies that use socialmedia platforms such as Facebook and Twitter to engage in dialogue with their respective audiences. The purpose ofExpand
From Yellow to Blue
This research explored how Lance Armstrong utilized image repair strategies during 2012 and early 2013. This time frame represented a turbulent period in his career, as he faced a dopingExpand
Networked Fandom: Applying Systems Theory to Sport Twitter Analysis
The purpose of this study was to employ systems theory to analyze the social network of a Big Ten football team’s Twitter community, and a systems-theory-based network was found in terms of input, transformation, and output components. Expand
Kissing in the Carnage: An Examination of Framing on Twitter During the Vancouver Riots
This study examines the frames found on Twitter during the Vancouver riots on June 15, 2011. A textual analysis was employed, and resulted in the identification of 5 frames: fandom, riot propagation,Expand
I am not loving it: examining the hijacking of #CheersToSochi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of the hijacking of #CheersToSochi and the potential impact on the McDonald's brand. A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted on theExpand
Choosing Between the One-Way or Two-Way Street
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships promoted by professional athletes on Twitter utilizing the theoretical framework of parasocial interaction (PSI). Specifically, this studyExpand
Echo or organic: framing the 2014 Sochi Games
Whether organic content on Twitter could withstand the transference of sentiments that emerge in traditional media could be investigated to examine whether there is a convergence or divergence of content across media platforms pertaining to an international sporting event. Expand
Battle of the sexes: Gender analysis of professional athlete tweets
This study employed a content analysis to determine the frames utilized by American professional athletes on Twitter, and if differences existed in the employment of frames across gender. The 100Expand
When Athlete Activism Clashes With Group Values: Social Identity Threat Management via Social Media
On November 30, 2014, five African American St. Louis Rams players locked hands and displayed a “hands-up” gesture during player introductions in response to racial tensions in Ferguson, Missouri,Expand